Digital University of America is the way of the future: we take the pain, stress, hard work and waste of time out of getting an education.

You don’t have to have a college degree to be successful, but if you want an education and a college degree, this is the place to get both. If you just want to get an education, you don’t even need to register–just follow the Course of Study from the beginning of CIVILIZATION to the PRESENT.

Digital University of America is a Twenty First Century University. When you finish your education at DUOA for a college degree, you will have a book of over 600 essays between two covers with Digital university of America on the front cover and a copy of your degree on the back cover which you will be proud to put on any employer’s desk when looking for a job. YOU WILL HAVE MORE THAN JUST A ONE OR TWO PAGE TRANSCRIPT WITH GRADES ON IT TO SHOW.

duoa flyer graphic 1duoa flyer graphic 2


digitalzzz Copyright 2015 by Digital University of America…



THERE ARE NO REQUIREMENTS EXCEPT: You will need to have a computer, Internet access, a legal name, address and an ID number to be issued when you register, be able to read English and posses a GENUINE DESIRE to get an education. You don’t have to be eighteen. You don’t have to have a high school diploma. You can be an elementary school dropout.


If you already have a College Degree, you can get a Master’s Degree by following the Course of Study and doing a Master’s Thesis. If you have a Master’s Degree, you can get a Doctor of Philosophy by following the Course of Study and doing a Doctoral Dissertation.

In order to earn credit, you must follow the instructions as they pertain to all lessons, completing the reading and video assignments, and compose a one page essay on each lesson based on your own ideas and ideas of others. You will not be bogged down by having to remember Dates, Facts, and Figures. There are no test to take.

You will follow a COURSE of STUDY that will take you on a CHRONOLOGICAL JOURNEY from the BEGINNING of CIVILIZATION to the PRESENT. This march through time will review the contribution of Great Individuals, their ideas and concepts, Great World Events, and Great Philosophical and Scientific Ideas – along with the impact these revelations and innovations had on civilization and are still having today. When you finish this Course of Study, you will know a lot about everything and much more about your Major Subject.

To access the listing of all major subjects, simple click on Major Subjects  on the black bar directly below the digital university header.

We now offer 38 Major Subjects starting with 557–595.

According to Dr. Albert Edward Wiggam, if you wish to become an educated person– you will ask yourself the three questions below every day of your life. If you ask and answer them, they will come to your aid in solving every problem and become the background of your clearest and most effective thinking.

The ABC’s of Education:




You don’t need a teacher to learn about everything. Great people of the past were self-educated.This website makes it easy for you by linking you directly to the information on each lesson.


1-  SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS THE INTERNET?…SINCE YOU WILL BE USING THE INTERNET  TO COMPLETE THIS COURSE OF STUDY, HERE IS SOME INFORMATION ABOUT THE INTERNET…INSTRUCTIONS: Click on the links below; Read and listen to all of the information, and then write a one page essay and Email it to Digital University of America. DUOAFREE@GMAIL.COM

a- Internet – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b- What is Internet? – Definition from What

c- What is the InternetYouTube

d-Who Really, Really Invented the Internet?

e- BBC – iWonder – Alan Turing: Creator of modern computing

d- Sir Tim Berners-Lee – World Wide Web Foundation

2- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS AN ESSAY?…INSTRUCTIONS: Click on the links below; Read and listen to all of the information, and then write a one page essay and Email it to DUOAFREE@GMAIL.COM

a. How to write an essay – Library and Learning Resources

b. Essay – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c- 8 Tips That Will Make Writing College Papers Less Terrifying

d. What Are the Fourteen Punctuation Marks in English Grammar?

3- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A MASTER’S THESIS?…INSTRUCTIONS: Click on the links below; Read and listen to all of the information, and then write a one page essay and Email it to Digital University of America.

a-Thesis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. How to write a master’s thesis – YouTube

c. Master’s Thesis Guidelines | Draper Program | New York University

4. SPECIAL TOPICS… WHAT IS SUCCESS?…We often think of being a success in status and financial terms…

Since you are doing this Course of Study in order to be successful, we need to examine what success is… Since everything begins with just an idea, you might say that success is the ability to convert an idea from the abstract to the concrete. Success could be the ability to satisfy your innate desires and reach your objectives while staying within the boundaries of the society in which you live.

INSTRUCTIONS: Click on to the links below read and listen, and do your own research; then write your own essay on success. Two great books you should read: Three Steps to Success and Think and Grow Rich

a. .What is Success? – YouTube

b. .What Is the Definition of Success Anyway? | Anna Partridge

c.Napoleon HillThink And Grow RichFull Length YouTube

d. 3 steps to Success

5- EVENTS/IDEAS: HOW OLD IS THE EARTH?…Scientists have calculated that Earth is 4.54 billion years old …

a- Born out of the sun 2014

b. How Was Earth Formed? –

c. BBC Earth – Timeline – The Earth formed from a vast gas and dust

d. A perfect planet…the formation of the earthYouTube

6- EVENTS/IDEAS: PREHISTORY…THE ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH In order for life to have gotten started, there must have been a genetic molecule.

a..Prehistoric Time Line – National Geographic

b.The First Living Things — The Outline of History by H. G. Wells

c.The Age of Lowland Life

7- EVENTS/IDEAS: 8,000-3,000BC…CIVILIZATION BEGINS… People stopped being hunters and gatherers and settle down to farming and domesticating animals. How did this event changed history forever?
Instructions: click on to the links below to read and listen, and then do your own search before writing your own essay. Write an essay on all lessons and email them to: DUOAFREE@GMAIL.COM

a.History of the world – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


c.The History of the World’s Civilizations in 2 Minutes – YouTube

8- EVENTS/IDEAS: 3000BC… RAMESSES I… founding Pharaoh of ancient Egypt … Hieroglyphics, engineering and irrigation of land…Learn about the Pharaohs and the Ancient Egyptian Civilization …YOU .ARE TO WRITE AN ESSAY ONE EACH LESSON.

a. Ra messes I – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Ramesses I: The Search for the Lost Pharaoh

c.Pharaoh – Ramses (part 1) – YouTube

9- EVENTS/IDEAS: 3000BC..BIRTH OF CIVILIZATION IN EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA… is usually held to have begun around 3000 BC.


b.Mesopotamia (Sumerians, first civilization on earth) – YouTube

c.Architectural Marvels of Ancient Mesopotamia – Fairfield

d.What have you learned ? Tell us in your essay.

10- EVENTS/IDEAS: 2500BC..PYRAMIDS… INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION…The great pyramids at Giza in Egypt are built about this time…

a.Early Civilization in the Indus Valley []

b.The Remarkable Indus Valley Civilization – Today I Found Out

c.Ancient Indus River Valley CivilizationYouTube

11- EVENTS/IDEAS: 2000BC… SECRETS OF STONEHENGE…Stonehenge may be the best-known and most mysterious relic of prehistory.

a. The Secrets of StonehengeYouTube

b.Stonehenge Facts, information, pictures | articles ..

c.10 facts about Stonehenge | History Extra

d. What is your theory?

ATTENTION: we want you to learn something about Major Subjects that you can major in before choosing a Major Subject.

12- A MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS HISTORY?…is a study of historiography that was written by the English historian E. H. Carr.

a. The History Guide — What is History?

b.History in Focus: What is History? – Institute of Historical Research

c.What is HistoryYouTube

13- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS BIOLOGY?…Biology is the science of life. Biologists study the structure, function, growth, origin , evolution and distribution of living organisms.

14- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1760BC…BEGINNING OF CIVILIZATION IN CHINA… with the first historical dynasty, the Shang, and the first writing and bronze artworks…

a.Ancient China – Dynasties of Power (Documentary) – YouTub

b.Shang dynasty | Chinese history |

c.Great Wall of China: Great Wall Tours, Facts, History, Photos

d. Search all the links on each article.

15-HAMMURABI:1750BC… Hammurabi… King of Egypt…Writing, First written code of law, and monumental architecture.

a.Code of HammurabiLegal History and Philosophy

b.Code of Hammurabi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Code Of Law Season 3 – YouTu

16- MOSES: 1393BC-1273BC… Moses is known as the most influential prophet in Judaism; he led the Israelite slaves to freedom…

a.Who Was Moses? Was He More than an Exodus Hero? – Biblical

b.The Exodus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Biblical Archaeology Society: Network Home

d.The Story of Moses, – YouTube

e.If you don’t have a library card, you should get one. The library has a world of free information.

17- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS SCIENCE?… to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works.

a.What is science? – Understanding Science

b.What is scienceYouTube

c.Science – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

18- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1250BC-1240BC…TROJAN WARS…Bronze Age Conflicts… A recent study published by German archaeologists sheds light on the extent of Bronzeage in northern Europe.

a. Trojan War – Ancient History –

b.Truth of Troy: Trojan War StoryYouTube

c.Trojan War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. Do your search.

19- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1027BC-256BC…ZHOU DYNASTY.. .The Zhou Dynasty, the longest in Chinese history, saw ancient China dramatically transformed…

a. Zhou dynasty | Chinese history |

b.Zhou dynasty – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Zhou DynastyYouTube

d. Your essays should be about a page.

20- EVENTS/IDEAS: approx.1000BC… ZOROASTER… WORLD OLDEST RELIGION…Zoroastrianism is the oldest of the revealed worldreligions. e …

a. ZOROASTER – World History

b.The Ancient Religion of ZoroastrianismYouTube

c.Zoroastrianism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


21- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1000BC…BEGINNING OF SANSKRIT LITERATURE..The Sanskrit literature of India dates back in oral tradition to the middle …

a.Sanskrit and Indian Civilization – YouTube

b.Origin and Development of Sanskrit –

c.Sanskrit – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d How does Western Language relate to Sanskrit?

22- EVENTS/IDEAS: mid.800s BC …THE DELPHI ORACLE.. Dating back to 1400 BC, the Oracle of Delphi was the most important shrine in all Greece…

a.The Oracle of Delphi—Was She Really Stoned? – Biblical

b.The Oracle of DelphiYouTube

c.The Oracle at Delphi – PBS

23- EVENTS/IDEAS: 872BC…THE FOUNDING OF CARTHAGE…Carthage is indisputably of key importance to Roman history.

a. Carthage – Ancient History Encyclopedia


c. Carthage – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d.You should try to write at least three quarters of a page on each lesson.

24- EVENTS/IDEAS: 820BC…LAWS OF LYCURGUS…The oracle told Lycurgus that his prayers had been heard and that the state which observed the laws of Lycurgus…

a. Lycurgus of Sparta – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The Laws of Lycurgus: Lawgiver of Sparta – YouTube

c.L Y C U R G U S – History of Greece

25- HOMER: 800BCE-701BC… Homer was an epic poet, who is most known for being the literary genius behind both the Iliad and the Odyssey.

a.Homer – Poet –

b.Homer’s Odyssey (story) – YouTube

c.Homer | Greek poet |

d.The Iliad: Homer Biography – Cliffs Notes

e.The Illiad Summary – Schoolbytes

f.The Odyssey at a Glance – Cliffs Notes

26- EVENTS/IDEAS: 776BC… THE OLYMPIC GAMES…THE ancient Olympic Games, first staged in 776 BC, were part of a religious festival for the god Zeus.

a. History – Ancient Olympics – First Olympic Games History from Olympia

b.Olympic Games – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.The History of the OlympicsYouTube

27- EVENTS/IDEAS: 753BC…THE FOUNDING OF ROME…The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology.

a.Myths and Legends – The Founding of Rome – YouTube

b.Myths and Legends Founding of Rome – Ancient/Classical History

c.Founding of Rome – Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSo great as the respect that all classes had for his judgment, reason and fairness, that Solon was given carte blanche to rewrite the laws and …

28- SOLON: 594BC… becomes governor of Athens…Laws of Solon…Solon was given carte blanche to rewrite the laws and …Athens a Constitution…

a. Birth of Democracy: Solon the Lawgiver –

b.Solon an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and elegiac poet – YouTube

c. Solon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

29- LORD GAUTAMA BUDDHA: 563BCE-480BC …Lord Buddha is known as the founder of Buddhism, and is regarded as The Supreme Buddha…

a. Gautama Buddha – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Gautama BuddhaYouTube

c.THE BASIC TEACHING OF BUDDHA – San Francisco State University

30- EVENTS/IDEAS: 586BC..THE FALL OF TYRE AND THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM…The destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple carried with it not only the

a. The Siege of JerusalemYouTube

b. The Siege of Jerusalem, AD 70, by Flavius Josephus

c. The Romans Destroy the Temple at Jerusalem, 70 AD

d. There are many sources of information you can find.


a.Learn to Touch Type in just One Hour – Guaranteed !! – YouTub

b.How to Teach Yourself to Touch Type: 5 Steps

c.How to Type Faster: Tips and Tricks to Master the Keyboard – Hongkiat

32- CONFUCIUS: 1551BC-1479BC… Confucius… a Chinese philosopher whose principles were based on common Chinese traditions; he also coined “The Golden Rule.”

a.Who Was Confucius? – China Family Adventure

b.What Confucius Taught by Sanderson Beck

c Confucius Analects Essay – Critical Essays –

d.The Life of Confucius animation.divxYouTube

33- EVENTS/IDEAS: 546BC-330BC… PERSIAN EMPIRE…The Persian Empire is any of a series of imperial dynasties centered in Persia ( Iran).

a.Kingdoms of PersiaPersia – The History Files

b.Achaemenid Empire – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Achaemenid Empire – Ancient History – World Map

34- EVENTS/IDEAS: 538BC The fall of Babylon…

a .Cyrus takes Babylon (539 BCE) – Livius

b.The Fall of Babylon – Ancient Mesopotamia – Tripod

c. Ancient Hanging Gardens of BabylonYouTube

35- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS NATURE?…the physical world and everything in it that is not made by people.

a. NatureWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Wonderful Earth Nature film – YouTube

c. NatureSummary and Analysis – CliffsNotes

36- AESCHYLUS: 523BC-456BC… Aeschylus was a Greek tragedian…known as the “father of tragedy,”

a .Aeschylus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


c Aeschylus – Ancient Greece – Classical Literature

d.Who was Aeschylus? – Ancient Greek Plays –

37-SPECIAL TOPIC…HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY…How to write a standard essay in English.

a. How to Write an Essay (with Sample Essays) – wikiHow

b.How to Write an Effective EssayYouTube

c.EssayWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

38- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS METAPHYSICS?… is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being…

a. What Is Metaphysics – A Modern Metaphysical Perspective

b.SparkNotes: Aristotle (384–322 B.C.): Metaphysics: Books Alpha to

39- SOPHOCLES: 497BCE-406BC… Sophocles wrote 120 plays during the span of his life…Sophocles (497 BC406 BC) A influential dramatist.

a. Sophocles – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Sophocles Biography – CliffsNotes

c.The History Of Sophocles ! – YouTube

40- PERICLES: 495BCE-429BC… the most prominent general of Athens during the Golden Age…Ancient Greek statesman…

a. Pericles – General –

b.Pericles Facts, information, pictures | articles

c.Pericles Parthenon Athenian GoldenAge – YouTube

41- EVENTS/IDEAS: 490BC…THE BATTLE OF MARATHON…The battle of Marathon is one of history’s most famous military engagements.

a.The Battle of Marathon, 490 BC – EyeWitness to History


c.Battle of Marathon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

42- EVENTS/IDEAS: 480BC-404BC… GOLDEN AGE…of Athenian democracy…Democracy, which had prevailed during AthensGolden Age…

a.History of Greece: The Golden Age of Greece

b.The Golden Age of Ancient GreeceYouTube

c.Greece: Secrets of the Past – The Golden Age of Greece

43- MAJOR SUBJECT… GEOLOGY…The combination of continents, oceans, and atmosphere makes Earth unique ..

a.How the Earth works (as seen from space) – All parts – YouTube

b.Gaia hypothesis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Spark Notes: The Good Earth: Themes, Motifs & Symbol

44- EURIPIDES: 485BCE-406BC… Euripides playwright of classical Athens…Learn more about Euripides, the last of classical Athens’s three great tragic dramatists, following Aeschylus and Sophocles, at

a.EuripidesPlaywright –


c.Euripides – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

45- HERODOTUS: 484BC-425BC… is referred to as “the father of history,” the only literary work he is known to have produced was that of the record of his inquiry.

a.Herodotus Greek historian father of history – Age of the Sage

b.Herodotus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.The Histories by Herodotus | SummaryYouTube

d. Do your search until you know what you want to know. You are not limited.

46- SOCRATES: 470BC-399BC Socrates was a Greek philosopher who is renowned as one of the founders of western philosophy.

a.Socrates – Philosopher –

b.Socrates – Ancient History –

c.The Ideas of SocratesYouTube

d. See how many sources of information you can find on this subject.

47- THUCYDIDES: 460BC-395BC… Thucydides was an Athenian historian and philosopher .

a.Thucydides: A Master HistorianYouTube

b.Thucydides – Ancient

c.Greek Historian Thucydides: Biography, Histories & Speeches

48- HIPPOCRATES: 460BC-370BC… physician… Known as the Father of Medicine.

a.Hippocrates – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Hippocrates The Father of Medicine – Classical Wisdom Weekly

c.Hippocrates | History in Minutes #8 – YouTube

d.Only you can limit your education.

49- DEMOCRITUS…460BCE…Many consider Democritus to be the “father of modern science”

a. Democritus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Democritus | Greek philosopher |

c .Democritus | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

a.What is Mathematics? – YouTube

b What is Mathematics?

c..Mathematics – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

51- ARISTOPHANES: 446BC-386BC… is known as an Athenian comic playwright…the greatest representative of ancient Greek comedy.

a. Aristophanes‘ Clouds Study Guide – University College London

b.Aristophanes Biography – life, family, death, old, information, born

c.The frogs by Aristophanes part 1 HD – YouTube

52- PLATO: 424BC-348BC… Plato was a Greek philosopher and mathematician, who founded the first institution, “The Academy.”

a. Plato: The Republic | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

b. Plato: Theory of Knowledge

c. PHILOSOPHY – PlatoYouTube

d. Learn all you want to know about Plato; then write your own essay.

53- EVENTS/IDEAS: 420BC…PLAGUE OF ATHENS…an outbreak of bubonic plague which occurred there in ….

a. Plague of Athens – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The plague of Athens: epidemiology and paleontology.

c. A mysterious illness kills one third of Athenians – YouTube

54- EVENTS/IDEAS: 415BC… SIEGE OF SYRACUSE…Siege of Syracuse (415-413)… one of the most important campaigns during the Peloponnese War.

a.Siege of SyracuseYouTube

b.The Siege of Syracuse – Livius

c.Military History: Ancient Rome – Bible History Online

55-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS RHETORIC?…Rhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing. And the art of persuasion.

a. Rhetoric – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Purdue OWL: Introduction to RhetoricYouTube

c. How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis: 15 Steps (with Pictures)

56- EVENTS/IDEAS: 399BC… Death and Trial of Socrates…

a. The Death of Socrates – Jacques-Louis David

b.The Death Of Socrates (part 1) – YouTube

c..Trial of Socrates – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

57-MAJOR SUBJECT…. WHAT IS ENGLISH GRAMMAR?… English grammar rules refer to sentence structure and parts of speech…14 marks of punctuation…

a .English grammarWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Learn English Grammar: The Sentence – YouTube

c.ACT Spark-notes Test Prep: Basic Grammar and Usage

d. What Are the Fourteen Punctuation Marks in English Grammar?

58- ARISTOTLE: 384BC-322BC… a Greek philosopher and scientist who was taught by Plato… the “first genuine scientist.”…

a. Aristotle – Philosopher –

b.PHILOSOPHY – AristotleYouTube

c.The Best Teaching Quotes Ever | Take-part

d. Why was Aristotle considered to be the first genuine scientist?

59- POTLEMY I SOTER: 367BC-283BC… Ptolemy I Soter was a Macedonian General, serving under Alexander the Great.

a.Ptolemy I Soter, the First King of Ancient Egypt’s Ptolemaic Dynasty

b.Ptolemy I – Ancient History Encyclopedia

c.Ptolemy I SoterYouTube

d. what would you like to remember about Ptolemy?

60- ALEXANDER THE GREAT: 356BC-323BC.. took the thrown of the Macedonian Kingdom at the age of 20. He spent much of his rule leading a military campaign…

a. Alexander the Great – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Alexander the Great History Channel Documentary – YouTube

c.Alexander the Great: 356-323 – Then Again

d. Do your own research…

61- EVENTS/IDEAS: 404 BC…END OF THE PELOPONNESE WAR…Shattering religious and cultural taboos, devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities.

a. Peloponnesian War | ancient Greek history |

b.Peloponnesian WarYouTube

c. History of the Peloponnesian War Summary –

62-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS ARITHMETIC?… means dealing with certain facts that we know, about number.

a. Arithmetic Mean (Average) – GMAT Math Study Guide

b. Arithmetic mean – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Arithmetic Sequence definitionYouTube

d. If you are not satisfied with the choices above, find your own…

63- EVENTS/IDEAS: 300BC…ROMAN CONQUEST OF GREECE…devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities…

a. How did the Romans conquer classical Greece? – YouTube

b.The Roman Period in Greece – History of Greece

c.The Creation, the Flood, and Gilgamesh – CliffsNotes

64- ARCHIMEDES …: 287BCE-212BC… one of the greatest mathematicians of all time…

a.Archimedes – Hellenistic Mathematics – The Story of Mathematics

b. Greek MathematicsThe Story of Mathematics

c.The Story of MathsYouTube

65- EVENTS/IDEAS: 259BC- 209BC…QUIN SHI HUANG……First true emperor of China…As the first emperor of China..

a. Quin Shi HuangDi Facts, information, pictures |

b.The First Emperor of ChinaYouTube

c.The First Emperor of China – Pearson Readers

66- EVENTS/IDEAS: 218BC-146BC…RISE OF ROME TO THE STATUS OF SUPER POWER…an absolute superpower …a nation that is dominant …

a. Ancient Rome – Ancient History Encyclopedia

b. Crash Course World History #10 – YouTube

c. Polybius – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

67-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS PHYSICS?...physics utilizes the scientific method to formulate and test hypotheses that are based on observation of the natural world. …

a.What is Physics? – Inspiration – YouTube

b. PhysicsWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.What is physics?| Explore |

68- EVENTS/IDEAS: 200BC… ANTIKYTHERA MACHINE… a clock-like machine consisting of more than 30 precise, hand-cut bronze gears.

a. Antikythera mechanism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Antikythera mechanism working – YouTube

c.2000-year-old Antikythera computer comes back to life – The Guardian

69- EVENTS/IDEAS: 151-146BC…THE FALL OF ANCIENT GREECE… Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted ….

a. The Rise and Fall of Classical Greece | History Today

b. The history of ancient GreeceYouTube

c. The Rise and Fall of Classical Greece – Princeton University Press

70-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS POETRY?…Poetry is many things to many people. Homer, John Milton, Christopher Marlowe, and of course Shakespeare have each given…

a. What Is Poetry? | NEA

b.Rhythm, Feet and Meter in PoetryYouTube

c.How to Analyze Poetry – CliffsNotes

71- LUCRETIUS : c.99BCE-c.55BC… a roman poet and philosopher whose only work which is an “epic philosophical poem” that translates in English…

a. Lucretius – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Lucretius | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

c. Introduction to Lucretius: On the Nature of Things –

72- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS ALGEBRA?…Algebra is a branch of mathematics dealing with symbols and the rules for manipulating those symbols.

a. Algebra 1 – How to find three consecutive numbers with a YouTube

b.Algebra 1 – How to find three consecutive numbers with a YouTube

c .AlgebraWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. History of algebraWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

73- VIRGIL : 70BCE-19BC… Virgil was a poet of ancient Rome who is known traditionally as being one of Rome’s greatest poets of all time…

a. Virgil – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Virgil | Roman poet |

c. Vergil – Ancient Rome – Classical Literature

74- JULIUS CAESAR: 48BC-31BC… Julius Caesar and Augustus establish monarchy in the Roman Empire.

a. Augustus – Ancient History –


c. Julius CaesarWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

75- EVENTS/IDEAS: By 270 BCE… ROME CONTROLLED ALL OF ITALY…conquered Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor.

a. History of the Roman Empire, the Golden age of Rome

b. Why the Roman Empire had the Greatest Golden Age YouTube

c .Ancient Rome – Ancient History –

76- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS GEOMETRY?…Geometry is the visual study of shapes, sizes, patterns, and positions.

a. Geometry — from Wolfram MathWorld

b. Geometry Lesson 1 – Building Blocks of GeometryYouTube

c. Geometry/Introduction – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

d. The objective here is not to make a mathematician out of you, but help you find out if you want to major in math.

77-JESUS CHRIST…Jesus Christ: 5BC-30AD… Jesus is the central figure in the Christian faith, and thought to be the “Son of God.” …

a. Jesus in Christianity – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Documentary | Frontline – From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians

c. From Jesus To Christ – The First Christians – PBS

78- APOLLONIUS OF TYANA… 3BC-100AD… Apollonius was a Greek philosopher around the time of Christ…The charismatic teacher and miracle worker…

a. Apollonius of Tyana -the Real Jesus of the New Testament

b. Apollonius of Tyana – New World Encyclopedia

c .ApolloniusWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

79- “ST. PAUL” THE APOSTLE… 5-67AD… is often revered as one of the most influential figures of the Apostolic Age… to teach the gospel of Christ to the 1st century world.

a. Saint Paul, the Apostle | Christian Apostle |

b.The Church of St Paul the Apostle

c. The Life of Paul, the ApostleYouTube

80-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS TRIGONOMETRY?... defines relations between elements of a triangle. In a triangle, there are six basic elements: 3 sides and 3 angles. ..

a. What Is Trigonometry? – Live Science

b. Basic TrigonometryYouTube

c.TrigonometryWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

81- EVENTS/IDEAS: 33-36AD…THE TRIAL AND CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS… the accounts of the arrest, trial, and crucifixion of Jesus contained in the Bible history…

a. The Arrest, trial and Crucifixion | The Living Word Library

b. Questions and Answers Concerning the Arrest, Trial, and Crucifixion

c. Sanhedrin trial of Jesus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

82- PLUTARCH: c.46-c.125AD… a Greek historian, biographer, and essayist…known in English as Plutarch…

a .Plutarch – Academic –

b. Plutarch (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

c.Plutarch’s Morals, vol. 3 – Online Library of Liberty

83- EPICTETUS: c.55-135AD… a stoic philosopher whose teachings were transcribed by his pupil.

a. Epictetus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Ignorance is Not an Excuse | The Boothby Institute

c. The Philosophy and Ethics of EpictetusYouTube

84- TACITUS: c.56-c.117AD… Tacitus was a historian and a senator of the Roman Empire.

a. Tacitus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


c.Tacitus | Roman historian |

85- NICOMACHUS: 60-120AD… an important Greek mathematician who wrote about the mystical properties of numbers.

a. Nicomachus of Gerasa | Roman philosopher and mathematician

b. How the Ancient Greeks shaped modern mathematicsYouTube

c.Greek Legacy: How the Ancient Greeks shaped modern mathematics

86- EVENTS/IDEAS: 64-303AD…PERSECUTION OF THE CHRISTIANS …Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire … Emperor Nero executed Christians…

a. Persecution of Christians – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Christian Persecution Quick Facts | Issues at a Glance | The Ethics

c.persecuted christian facts & videos | persecution of –

87- EVENTS/IDEAS: 70AD…THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM…The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 was the decisive event of the First Jewish– Roman War.

a.Siege of Jerusalem (1099) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The Siege of Jerusalem, AD 70, by Flavius Josephus


88- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS RELIGION? crosses so many different boundaries in human experience, religion is notoriously difficult to define.

a.What is Religion? – WHY STUDY RELIGION

b.What is Religion? – YouTubeList of religions and spiritual traditions – Wikipedia, the free.

c.List of religions and spiritual traditions – Wikipedia, the free

89- PTOLEMY: 100-170AD… Claudius Ptolemy was writer and mathematician … He was also a poet of a single epigram…

a. Ptolemy | Egyptian scientist and mathematician |

b. Physical Science 10.1b – PtolemyYouTube

c.Ptolemy Facts, information, pictures | articles

90- EVENTS/IDEAS: 200AD …HERO OF ALEXANDER’S BOOK OF MACHINES… Baths of Caracalla in Rome… Watermill complex near Arles…

a. Hero of Alexandria and His Amazing Machines – Today I Found Out

b.Amazing Ancient Discoveries (Heron of Alexandria) – YouTube

c.Hero of AlexandriaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia


a. Five Good Emperors | ancient Rome |

b.Five Good EmperorsYouTube

c.The Five Good Emperors of Rome & the Nervan-Antonine Dynasty

92- GALEN OF PERGAMON..: 130-200AD… The development of medicine owes a lot to Galen. He was of Greek origin …

a. Galen – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


c.Galen of Pergamum | Greek physician |

93- PLOTINUS: c.204-270AD.. .was an Egyptian/Greek/Roman philosopher of the Hellenistic period.

a. The Philosophy of Plotinus: Representative Books from the Enneads

b.Plotinus – Mystic and Philosopher – YouTube

c. .PlotinusWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

94- CONSTANTINE THE GREAT…272-337AD… Constantine was the 57th Emperor of Rome…. Constantine was a great military commander winning major victories over the …

a.Constantine I | Roman emperor |

b.Constantine the Great – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Constantine the GreatYouTube

95- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS THEOLOGY…Webster’s dictionary defines theology as “The science of God or of religion…

a. What is Theology? |

b. What is the definition of theology? –

c. Theology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

96- EVENTS/IDEAS: 312AD… CONVERSION OF CONSTANTINE … turning point in Christian history occurred when the Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity...

a.Constantine the Great and Christianity – Wikipedia, the free

c.Constantine I | Roman emperor |

97- EVENTS/IDEAS: 312-493AD…THE GROWTH OF THE PAPACY… The preeminence of the bishop of Rome over the entire Catholic Church…

a. History of the papacy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


c. papacy | Roman Catholicism |

98- EVENTS/IDEAS: 330AD…THE FOUNDING OF CONSTANTINOPLE… Because it lay on the European side of the Strait of Bosporus, the Emperor Constantine understood…

a.Constantinople – Ancient History Encyclopedia

b. THEY MIGHT BE GIANTS “Istanbul (Not Constantinople)” – YouTube

c.The Fall of ConstantinopleYouTube

99- AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO… 354-430AD… an elderly philosopher and theologian whose works influenced the development of Christianity greatly.

a. St. Augustine of Hippo – Saints & Angels – Catholic Online

b.Augustine of Hippo – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. The Life and Thought of St. Augustine of HippoYouTube

100- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS CALCULUS..Calculus is the study of how things change. It provides a framework for modeling systems in which there is change…

a.What is Calculus? Answered in an easy to understand way with

b.What is calculus? – YouTube

c. CalculusWikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

101- EVENTS/IDEAS: 449A…THE SAXON CONQUEST OF BRITAIN…The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain was the process, from the mid 5th to early 7th …

a. Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The Anglo Saxon Invasions of Britain – YouTube

c. BBC – Primary History – AngloSaxonsInvasion and settlement

102- EUCLID: mid 400s-mid 300s AD… Euclid, a Greek mathematician known as the “father of geometry.”

a. Euclid | Greek mathematician |

b. What’s the point of Geometry? – EuclidYouTube

c. Euclid, the Father of Geometry – Greek Mathematics –

103-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS TRUTH?…If there is such a thing as truth, then we should be able to find it. If truth cannot be known, then it probably doesn’t exist.

a. What is truth? | CARM | Relativism

b.What Is Truth? – YouTube



a. Cricket: Gun Salesperson of the Year – YouTube

b. salespersonship – Wiktionary

c. 8 Rules for Successful Selling – Business Know-How

d. The 5 Great Rules of Selling: The Revised and Enlarged Edition

e.Dale Carnegie Free eBook – How To Win Friends Influence People


a. 8 Reasons Why Rome Fell – History Lists – History Channel

b. The Roman Empire – Episode 6: The Fall Of The Roman YouTube

c. Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire – Top Documentary

106- EVENTS/IDEAS: 521A…JUSTINIAN CLOSES ATHENIAN PHILOSOPHY SCHOOLS…Although philosophers continued to teach Plato’s philosophy in Athens

a. Emperor Justinian’s Closure of the School of Athens – Bede’s Library

b. Old Roman chant – Tecum Principium – YouTube

c. Justinian I – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. Justinian the Great – YouTube

107- EVENTS/IDEAS: WHAT IS A THESIS?…A thesis statement declares what you believe and what you intend to prove.

a.What is a thesis? – Kean University

b Thesis Statements – The Writing Center

c.Writing Tips: Thesis Statements – Center for Writing Studies

108- MUHAMMAD: 570-632AD… Muhammad is the most prominent prophet in Islam. To many he is known to be the creator of the Islamic religion…

a. Islam Guide: Who Is the Prophet Muhammad (Mohammed)?

b.Muhammad The Prophet Of Islam – The Movie – Official YouTube

c.MuhammadWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

109- EVENTS/IDEAS: 632-641AD…THE CONQUEST PERSIA…The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran led to the end of the Sasanian Empire …i

a. Islamic conquest of Persia – YouTube

b. Muslim conquest of Persia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.History of Iran: Islamic Conquest – Iran Chamber Society

110- EVENTS/IDEAS: 709-713AD…THE ARAB CONQUEST O F SPAIN…Islamic Conquest of Hispania.. Coat of arms of Spain …. This situation lasted some 40 years…

a.The Truth About the Arab Conquest of Spain (711-788) – YouTube

b. The Truth About the Arab Conquest of Spain (711-788) | Daily Stormer

c.Muslim conquest of the Maghreb – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

111- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS TYRANNY?… cruel and unfair treatment by people with power over others. : a government in which all power belongs to one person…

a.Tyranny | Definition of Tyranny by Merriam-Webster

b. Principles of Tyranny – Constitution Society

c.Tyranny – Wikipedia

112- CHARLEMAGNE: 742-814AD… is known as the Holy Rome Emperor…also known as Karl and Charles the Great…

a. Charlemagne | Holy Roman emperor [747?-814] |

b. BBC – History – Charlemagne

c.Charlemagne – Part 1: The Founder of Europe – YouTube

113-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS VIRTUE AND VISE?..Assuming that human agents possess settled dispositions or character traits…

a. Virtue and Vice – Encyclopedia of Philosophy |

b.Virtue and Vice / Fear, and Loathing in Las Vegas [Drum YouTube

c. Vice and VirtueWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

114- EVENTS/IDEAS: 850-1000AD… THE RISE OF FEUDALISM…the rise of feudalism in areas formerly dominated by Roman institutions meant the breakdown of…

a. The Rise of Feudalism, 850-1000 AD – WWW Virtual Library

b. Feudalism European History AP World History

c. The Rise of Feudalism – YouTube

115- EVENTS/IDEAS: 862AD…THE BEGINNINGS OF RUSSIA…The early history of Russia, like those of many countries, is one of migrating peoples and ancient kingdoms.

a. Russian history – Russiapedia

b.History of RussiaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Book Summary – CliffsNotes

116- EVENTS/IDEAS: 919-936AD… CONSOLIDATION OF GERMANY BY HENRY II…Henry II spent the next several years consolidating his …

a. Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Henry II of England – YouTube

c.Lost Worlds Page 11 – From 500AD to 1000AD

117-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A DISSERTATION?…A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree…

a.What Is a Doctoral (Ph.D.) Dissertation?

b.What Is a Dissertation? | Capella University Blog

c.What Is the Difference Between a Thesis and a Dissertation?

118- LEIF ERIKSON: c.970-c.1020AD… Leif Erikson an Icelandic explorer, landed in North America before Christopher Columbus…

a. LEIF EREIKSSION – Exploration –

b.The Viking Explorer Who Beat Columbus to America – History Channel

c. Leif Eriksson – The First European in North AmericaYouTube

119- EVENTS/IDEAS: 988AD…RUSSIA CONVERTS TO ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY…The Church of Russia, known officially as the Russian Orthodox … (

a. History of the Russian Orthodox Church – Wikipedia, the free

b.Russian Orthodox Christian Priest converted to Islam – YouTube

c.Russian Orthodox Church – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

120- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1002AD…DANISH CONQUEST OF ENGLAND…the ease of the conquest, they decided to settle permanently in England. …

a.Total war: Age of Charlemagne / Westphalia /#11 / Danish conquest

b. VIKINGS – Part 3 – Invasion of England (Norman YouTube

c. History of Anglo-Saxon EnglandWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

121- EVENTS/IDEAS1066AD…NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND…The Norman conquest of England was the 11th century invasion and occupation of England …

a. Norman conquest of England – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The Norman Conquest of EnglandYouTube

c.The Norman Conquest of England – Historic UK

122-HENRY IV: 1076AD… Empire versus Papacy-Henry IV at Canossa…Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII in Canossa 1077, as depicted by Carlo Emanuelle …

a. Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Daily Medieval: The Walk to Canossa

c. 2010-11 Medieval Pope-King Battle.m4v – YouTube

123- EVENTS/IDEAS1086AD…DOOMSDAY BOOK INVENTORY OF ENGLAND…The Domesday Book, a detailed inventory of everyone and everything in Norman England

a. BBC – History – British History in depth: The Domesday Book

c.Publication of Domesday BookWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

124- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1088AD…FOUNDING OF THE UNIVERSITIES OF BOLOGNA AND PARIS…In the 11th century, Bologna became an important center of legal studies.

a. University of Paris – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. university |

c.University of ParisYouTube

125- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS LOVE?…Is Love“. She stares into the mirror, youth fading with the sun. The hollows in her face like wishing wells.

a. WHITE LIES LYRICS – Is Love – A-Z Lyrics

b. Gala is Love

c. Love Is Love // Return To Dust | Deathwish Inc.

126- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A CITIZEN?… a native or naturalized member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to its government and is entitled to its protection.

a. Citizen – definition of citizen by The Free Dictionary

b.What is a Good Citizen ?

c. Family Education Series – Being A Good CitizenYouTube

127-GENGHIS KHAN: 1162-1227AD…The Great Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire…Genghis Khan or Chingis Khan, was the first great military leader…

a.Genghis Khan – Facts & Summary –

b.Wait For It…The Mongols!: Crash Course World History #17 – YouTube

c.The Mongols in World History | Asia Topics in World History

128-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS JUSTICE?…the quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness: to uphold the justice of a cause.

a. Justice, Western Theories of | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

b. Three Theories of Justice | Ethical Realism

c.A Theory of Justice Summary – e

129- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS COURAGE?…Courage is a universally admired attribute. From soldiers to entrepreneurs, writers to explorers, living with courage…

a. The Six Attributes of Courage | Psychology Today

b. Courage: No Guts, No Glory – Frank Sonnenberg Online

c.Courage: Experiencing War: Veterans History Project (Library of

130- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1194AD-1500AD… GOTHIC ART AND ARCHITECTURE… dominate Europe… French Gothic architecture is a style of architecture prevalent…

a. French Gothic architecture – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.French Gothic architecture Wiki

c.The Great Gothic Cathedrals of EuropeYouTube

131- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1215AD ..MAGNA CARTA …limits the power of the King…Following a revolt by the English nobility , King John puts his royal seal on the Magna Carta

a.Magna Carta1215YouTube

b. The Magna Carta 1215 – Constitution Society

c.Magna Carta Exclusive Videos & Features –

132- THOMAS AQUINAS….1225-1274AD …St. Thomas was a Dominican friar and Catholic priest whose influence on natural theology was immense….

a. Get PDF (146K) – Wiley Online Library

b. Saint Thomas Aquinas – Thomistic Philosophy

c.Thomas Aquinas – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

133- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS WISDOM?…The dictionary defines wisdom as “the ability to discern or judge what is true, right , or lasting.” Knowledge, on the other hand…

a. What Is The Bible Definition Of Wisdom? How Are We Wise In God’s

b.What is WisdomYouTube

c.Plato’s view of wisdom

134- MARCO POLO…1254-1324AD… Marco Polo was an Italian merchant and explorer who greatly influenced European cartography…

a. Marco Polo – Journalist, Explorer –

b. Marco Polo | Italian explorer |

c. 11 Things You May Not Know About Marco Polo – History Lists

135- EVENTS/IDEAS…1257-1265AD…THE BARONS’ WAR…and the first English Parliament…

a. The BaronsWar, Simon de Montfort v Henry III – Britain Express

b.Edward I of England – YouTube

c. First Parliament of Great BritainWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

136-DANTE ALIGHIERI…1265-1321AD… “Dante” Italian poet during the late Middle Ages..

a. Dante | Italian poet |

b. Dante – Philosopher, Scholar, Poet –

c.Dante Alighieri (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

137- EVENTS/IDEAS…1268AD…THE FIRST WEIGHT-DRIVEN MECHANICAL CLOCK…There are two basic types of mechanical clocks, those powered by weights …

a. History of the Clock – The Anderson Institute

b. Antique Chauncey Jerome Weight Driven Wall ClockYouTube

c. History of the Clock – The Anderson Institute

138- PETRARCH: 1304-1374AD…scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists.

a. Petrarch – Philosopher, Poet –

b. ITALIAN HUMANISM – World Wide Web Virtual Library

c. The Italian Renaissance (AP Euro Review) – YouTube

139- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1304AD-1564AD…ITALIAN RENAISSANCE A RE-BIRTH…The term Renaissance, literally means “rebirth” and is the period in European …

a, The Italian Renaissance (AP Euro Review) – YouTube

b. History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery

c. Examining the (Re)Birth of the Renaissance – For Dummies

140- EVENTS/IDEAS…1329A… HUNDRED YEAR WAR… between England and France…The Hundred Years’ War was a series of conflicts waged from …

a. Hundred YearsWar – Facts & Summary –

b. What Hundred Years War? | History Today

c. 7 facts about the Hundred YearsWar and the battle of Agincourt

141- GEOFFREY CHAUCER: c.1343-1400AD… Geoffrey Chaucer is know as “the father of English literature..

a.Geoffrey Chaucer: The Father of Modern English? | Great Writers

c.Next post: How many Chaucers does it take to change a language?

142- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1347A…REVOLUTION IN ROME…The messages in the Bayside Prophecies on the coming revolution in Rome, Italy given by Jesus and Our Lady…

a. Rome’s Revolution – Richard Alston – Oxford University Press

b. The Problems of Prosperity — The Roman Revolution Pt 1 – YouTube

c. Ancient Rome – Ancient History – – History Channel

143- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1347AD…FIRST OUTBREAK OF THE BLACK PLAGUE IN EUROPE…The Black Death was an epidemic of bubonic plague

a. Black Death – Facts & Summary –

b. Black Death – Medieval Life and Times

c.Medieval Life: The Black DeathYouTube

144-JOHANNES GUTENBERG : 1395-1468AD… FIRST PRINTING PRESS… Johannes Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer and publisher in Europe…

a. Johannes Gutenberg Biography (1395-1468)

b. social security can only go broke because of ignorance about

c.Johannes Gutenberg | German printer |

145-JOAN OF ARC: 1412-1431AD… Joan of Arc was a heroine of France for the role she played during “The Hundred Years’ War,” and she was made a Roman Catholic Saint.

a. Saint Joan of Arc | French heroine |

b.St. Joan of Arc – Warrior of God (True Story) – YouTube

c.St Joan: Play Summary – CliffsNotes

146-JAN VAN EYCK : 1425AD…Flemish Oil Painter, Best-Known for Ghent … painters of the Netherlandish Renaissance, Van Eyck mastered the art of oil painting…

a. Oil paint – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Jan van Eyck: Flemish Painter – Visual Arts Encyclopedia

c.Jan van Eyck A Flemish Painter – Northern Renaissance YouTube

147- JOHN CABOT: c.1450-c.1500AD… John Cabot, an Italian navigator and explorer who discovered portions of North America. ..

a.John CabotYouTube

b.John CabotExplorer –

c.John Cabot – Exploration – – History Channel

148- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT ARE OPINIONS?…In general, an opinion is a judgment, viewpoint, or statement about matters commonly considered to be subjective.

a. Opinion – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Distinguishing Between Fact, Opinion, Belief, and Prejudice

c Stereotypes and PrejudicesYouTube

149- CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS: c.1451-1506AD… Christopher Columbus an Italian explorer and navigator who discovered “The New World.”

150- LEONARDO da VINCI: 1452-1519AD… Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian polymath…Leonardo’s curiosity and insatiable hunger for knowledge never left him.

a. Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci – Wikipedia, the free

b.Leonardo DaVinciYouTube

c.BBC – HistoryLeonardo da Vinci

151- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1453AD-1521AD…GOLDEN AGE OF THE AZTEC EMPIRE IN …MEXICO…The Aztec Empire, which experienced its golden age between…

a. Aztec history

b. History of the Aztecs – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Aztec Civilization – Ancient History EncyclopediaHarvey was an English physician

152- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1453AD…THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE…The siege of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most heavily…

a. The Fall of Constantinople | History Today

b. The Sack of Constantinople, 1453 – Eye Witness to History

c. The Fall of Constantinople – World History

153-AMERIGO VESPUCCI: 1457-1512AD… Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer, navigator, and cartographer…

a.Amerigo Vespucci Facts & Biography | Famous Explorers


c.Amerigo Vespucci Facts, information, pictures |

154- NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI…1469-1527AD… Niccolo Machiavelli was an Italian philosopher, historian, and known as the founder of political science…

a. Niccolò Machiavelli (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b.POLITICAL THEORY – Nicoli MachiavelliYouTube

c.Niccolo Machiavelli – the Cunning Critic of Political Reason | History

155- NICOLAUS COPERNICUS… 1473-1543AD… Nicolaus Copernicus, a Renaissance astronomer and mathematician…

a.Nicholas Copernicus Facts, information, pictures |

b.Nicolaus Copernicus – Astronomer, Scientist, Mathematician ..

c. BBC – History – Copernicus

156- JUAN PONCE de LEON…1474-1521AD… Juan Ponce de Leon, led the first Europe expedition to Florida…

a. Juan Ponce de León – Explorer –

b. Juan Ponce de Leon | Spanish explorer |

c. Juan Ponce de León – Exploration –

157- FERDINAND MAGELLAN…1480-1521AD… Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer, first circumnavigation of the world.

a. Ferdinand MagellanExploration –

b. 10 Surprising Facts About Magellan’s Circumnavigation of the Globe

c.Magellan Was Not the First Person to Circumnavigate the Globe

158- BABUR.. 1483-1530AD… Babur a Central Asian conqueror, the first Emperor of the Mughal Dynasty of India…

a. Babur – Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaBabur | Founder of the Mughal DynastyAsian History –

b. Babur | Founder of the Mughal DynastyAsian History –

c. Muslim Rule of India

159- MARTIN LUTHER…1483-1546AD… Martin Luther, a German friar, priest, and theology professor, a pivotal figure during the Protestant Reformation…

a.Martin Luther Facts, information, pictures | articles

c. CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther – New Advent

160- EVENTS/IDEAS…1485AD… END OF WAR OF ROSES…This event is seen as marking the end of the War of Roses…

a. Wars of the Roses – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The End of the Wars of the Roses

c. 9 Things You Should Know About the Wars of the Roses – History in

161- VASCO da GAMA: 1487AD…was a Portuguese explorer who sailed around Africa to India; making him the first European to reach India by sea, linking Europe and Asia.

a. Vasco da Gama – Explorer –

b. Vasco da Gama – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.World History 1450-1500 AD – History Central

162- EVENTS/IDEAS…1491AD…THE CONQUEST OF CANADA…The British campaign to conquer Canada began in 1758 starting with the capture of the port of Louisburg…

a. Conquest – The Canadian Encyclopedia

b.Canada A Country by Consent: The Conquest

c. CONQUEST OF CANADA The British campaign to conquer Canada began in 1758 starting with the capture of the port of Louisburg, part of a surrounding colony, which was followed by …

163- EVENTS/IDEAS…1492AD…THE JEWS EXPELLED FROM SPAIN…In the same month in which their Majesties issued the edict that all Jews should be driven out…

a. The Spanish Expulsion (1492) | Jewish Virtual Library

b. Jews to be expelled from Spain – Mar 31, 1492 –

c. Jews, Expulsion of (Spain; Portugal) –

164- CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS…1492AD… Columbus an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer whose first voyage to the New World– The discovery of America…

a. Christopher Columbus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Explorers of North America:

c.Discovery and Colonization of the New World – The American

165- FRANCOIS RABELAIS…1494-c.1553AD… Francois Rabelais a French writer, physician, monk, Greek scholar, and humanist during the Renaissance…

a.Francois Rabelais | French author |

b.Francois Rabelais Facts, information, pictures |

c.François Rabelais Essay – Rabelais, François –

166- EVENTS/IDEA…1494AD…CHARLES VIII INVADES ITALY…The war pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the …

a. Charles VIII of France – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Charles VIII Facts, information, pictures | articles

c. Charles VIII Facts – Biography – YourDictionary

167- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1497-1499AD… VOYAGES OF VASCO da GAMA…Vasco da Gama found a direct sea route from Europe to Asia, and was the first European to sail to India.

a. Vasco da GamaExploration –

b.Vasco da Gama – Ages of Exploration

c.Vasco da Gama – Explorer –

168- EVENTS/IDEAS…1498AD… THE EXECUTION OF SAVONAROLA…Hanging and burning of Girolamo Savonarola in Florence…

a. Execution of Florentine friar Savonarola | History Today

b. Execution of Florentine friar Savonarola | History Today

c. Execution of Florentine friar Savonarola | History Today

169- EVENTS/IDEA… 1499-1502AD… THE MORISCOS SPANISH MUSLIM ….the Moriscos were descendants of Spain’s Muslim population that converted to Christianity…

a. Morisco | Spanish Muslim |

b. Expulsion of the Moriscos – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Spain’s Forgotten Muslims – The Expulsion of the Moriscos

170- EVENTS/IDEAS…1508AD… LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI …The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League…

a. League of Cambrai | European history |

b.League of Cambrai Facts, information, pictures |

c. War of the League of Cambrai – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

171- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1510-1535AD… CONQUESTS OF MEXICO AND PERU…With the Spanish conquests of Mexico and Peru in the early 16 Th century…

a. Conquest of Mexico and Peru

b. History of the Conquest of Mexico & History of the Conquest of Peru

c.Conquest of Mexico and Peru – YouTube

172- MICHELANGELO… 1512AD… Michelangelo is a well-known Italian sculptor, painter, and architect during the time of the Renaissance…

a. MichelangeloPainter, Architect, Poet, Sculptor –

b. Michelangelo | Italian artist |

c. Michelangelo: Italian Renaissance Artist – Visual Arts Encyclopedia

173- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1513AD… BATTLE OF FLODDEN FIELD…The Battle of Flodden or Flodden Field was part of a conflict between the Kingdom of England and the …

a. Battle of Flodden Field – Education Scotland

b. Battle of Flodden – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Battle of Flodden Field 1513. – England’s North East

174- FERDINAND MAGELLAN: 1515AD… who is know for the initiation of the Spanish expeditions to the East Indies which led to him being the first to circumnavigate the Earth.

a. Ferdinand Magellan – Exploration –

b.Ferdinand Magellan Facts, information, pictures |

c.Ferdinand Magellan Biography – Encyclopedia of World Biography

175- EVENTS/IDEAS…1517-1540AD…THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION…The Protestant Reformation was a religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval…

a.The Reformation – Facts & Summary –

b. CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Reformation – New Adven

c. Protestant Reformation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

176- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1520AD…FIELD OF CLOTH AND GOLD … Field of Cloth and Gold… In the early 16th century the balance of power in Western Europe was a precarious one…

a. Field of the Cloth of Gold –

b.The Field of Cloth of Gold – British Library

c.British School, 16th century – The Field of the Cloth of Gold

177- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1521-1529AD… CHARLES V CONQUERS ITALY…The army of the Holy Roman Emperor defeated the French army in Italy

a. 51. The Emperor Charles V. Wells, H.G. 1922. A Short History of the

b.Charles V | Holy Roman emperor |

c. Italian War of 1494–98 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

178- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1528AD..THE ADMIRAL ANDREA DORIA GUIDED BY NEPTUNE… of Charles V’s imperial fleet, the ruler of Genoa, and a distinguished…

a. Andrea Doria | Genoese statesman |

b.Andrea Doria – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Andrea Doria and Giannettino Doria; The Admiral Andrea Doria

179- MICHEL de MONTAIGNE…1533-1592AD… Michel de Montaigne, one of the more noteworthy philosophers of the French Renaissance…

a.Montaigne, Michel de | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

b.Renaissance Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

c. Michel de Montaigne, French essayist (1533-92) – 1902 Encyclopedia

180- EVENTS/IDEAS…1534AD… SUPPRESSION OF THE GREATER MONASTERIES…The dissolution or suppression of the monasteries in England was carried ….

a. Dissolution of the Monasteries – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Suppression of English Monasteries Under Henry VIII – New Advent

c.Suppression of English Monasteries Under Henry VIII – New Advent

181- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1540AD… THE CATHOLIC COUNTER-REFORMATION…The CounterReformation was the period of Catholic resurgence beginning with the Council…

a. CounterReformation – PBS CounterReformation | religious history |

b. CounterReformation | religious history |

c.Counter Reformation Facts, information, pictures |

182-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS ARISTOCRACY?…government by a relatively small privileged class or by a minority consisting of those felt to be best qualified to rule.

a. Aristocracy | Define Aristocracy at

b. The History Place – Great Speeches Collection: Susan B. Anthony

c. The Aristocracy – Born to Rule: 1875-1914 1st part – YouTube

183- ANDREAS VESALIUS… 1543AD… Vesalius’s On the structure of the Human Body…Known for, De humani corporis fabrica or “the structure of the human body” …

a. Andreas Vesalius – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

b. Comparative Anatomy: Andreas Vesalius – Understanding Evolution

c. Andreas Vesalius – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

184- WILLIAM GILBERT…1544AD-1603AD… Gilbert was an English physician, physicist, and natural philosopher…William Gilbert’s On the Magnet…

a.William Gilbert Facts, information, pictures |

b.William Gilbert Founder Of Terrestrial Magnetism – The General

c. Cambridge Scientific Minds

185- MIGUEL de CERVANTES…c.1547-1616AD… “Cervantes” was novelist, poet, and playwright of Spanish descent… wrote Don Quixote…

a. Miguel de Cervantes – Military Leader, Writer –

b. Miguel de Cervantes: Novelist, Poet, and Playwright (Signature

c. Miguel de Cervantes | Spanish writer |

186- SIR WALTER RALEIGH…1552-1618AD… Sir Walter Raleigh was an English gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, explorer, made tobacco popular throughout England…

a.Raleigh, Sir Walter (ca. 1552–1618) – Encyclopedia Virginia

b. The Life of Sir Walter Ralegh (1552-1618) [Raleigh Biography]

c. Walter RALEIGH (Sir) – Elizabethan Hero, Explorer and Pirate

187-GERARDUS MERCATOR…1512-1594AD… Mercator was a cartographer of Flemish descent, who developed mathematics-based maps of Europe…

a. 12 Maps That Changed the World – The Atlantic

b.Gerardus Mercator Facts, information, pictures |

c. Flemish geographer Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594 – Getty Images

188- GIORDANO BRUNO…1548-1600AD… Bruno was an Italian Friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and astrologer..

a.Giordano Bruno | Italian philosopher |

b. Giordano Bruno – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.1600AD Roman Inquisition – Anthropology: Nelson, Gilbert, Wong

189-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS MIND?…is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory…

a. What Is the Mind? | Psychology Today

b. What’s The Difference Between The Mind And The Brain? – The best

c. What is the Mind? – Kadampa Buddhism

190- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS AN OLIGARCHY?…Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people.

a. Oligarchy | Define Oligarchy at

b. ligarchy | government |

c. America is an oligarchy, not a democracy or republic, university study

191-EVENT..JAMESTOWN SETTLEMENT 1607…The founding of Jamestown, America’s first permanent English colony, in Virginia…

a. History of Jamestown, Virginia (1607–99) – Wikipedia, the free

b. History of Jamestown – Jamestown Settlement

c. Jamestown Colony – Facts & Summary –

192- Fancis Bacon…1561-1626AD… Francis Bacon, an English philosopher… was an statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

a. Francis Bacon – Scientist, Lawyer –

b. BBC – History – Francis Bacon

C. Francis Bacon – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

193- WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE… 1564-1616AD… “Shakespeare,” a well-known English poet, playwright, and actor…,

a.Shakespeare’s Elizibethan England 1564 to 1616 AD

b. The Life of William Shakespeare (1564–1616) | Shakespeare in

c. A Man of Culture: English Plays V – William Shakespeare – Hamlet

194- GALILEO GALILEI… 1564-1642AD… Galileo was an Italian astronomer, physicist, philosopher, and mathematician…

a. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) – ScienceWorld – Wolfram

b. What were Galileo’s scientific and biblical conflicts with the Church?

c. Chapter 3 – Department of Physics and Astronomy

195-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS WAR AND PEACE?…War and Peace broadly focuses on Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812…

a. War and Peace – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy — Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs

c.Ten Things You Need to Know About War And Peace – BBC

196- EVENTS/IDEAS:…1568-1648AD…RISE OF THE DUTCH REPUBLIC…was an American author, best known for his two popular histories The Rise of the Dutch Republic and The …

a . Rise of the Dutch Republic I.(of 3) 1555-66, by John Lothrop Motley,

b. The Rise of the Dutch Republic | work by Motley |

c. The Rise of the Dutch Republic & Their Golden Age: History


a. A History of Astronomy. Ptolemy to Copernicus to Johannes Kepler.

b. Kepler, Johannes (1571-1630) – ScienceWorld – Wolfram

c. Johannes Kepler – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

198- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1572AD…THE MASSACRE OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW…The St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Bartholemy in French) in 1572…

a. Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre – Aug 24, 1572 –

b. Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day | French history |

c.CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

199- WILLIAM HARVEY…1572AD..Read a biography about Willam Harvey, the 17th century physician who …

a. William Harvey | English physician |

b. William Harvey – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

c. BBC – History – William Harvey

200-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS DESIRE?… desire has been identified as a philosophical problem since Antiquity…

a. What Is The Root Cause Of Suffering | Buddhapadipa Temple

b. Sexual desire and intimate relationships – Wikipedia, the free

c. he Botany of Desire: Based on the book by Michael Pollan – PBS

201- BLAISE PASCAL..1623-1662AD… Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer, and Christian philosopher…

a. Blaise Pascal Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. English: Quotes of Zion

c.Blaise Pascal | French philosopher and scientist |

202- CHRISTIAN HUYGENS…1629-1695AD… Huygens, a Dutch mathematician of Huygens led a solo life and never married nor had children.

a. Christiaan Huygens – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Christiaan Huygens Facts, information, pictures |

c.Christiaan Huygens – Biography, Facts and Pictures

203- BARUCH SPINOZA… 1632-1677AD… Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese origin. Spinoza an 18th century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism…

a. Benedict de Spinoza | Dutch-Jewish philosopher |

b. Baruch Spinoza (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

c. Why Spinoza Was Excommunicated | Humanities

204- JOHN LOCKE… 1632-1704AD… Locke, an English philosopher and physician… Locke is known as “ the Father of Liberalism.”…

a. John Locke | English philosopher |

b. John LockePhilosopher –

c. John Locke – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

205- ROBERT HOOKE: 1635-1703AD… Hooke was an English natural philosopher. Hooke’s Micrographia…is famous for pioneering microscopy and cell science. …

a. Micrographia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.History – British History in depth: Robert Hooke, Natural Philosopher

c. Robert Hooke | ASU – Ask A Biologist

206- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1637AD… Rene Descartes introduces algebraic geometry… “Father of Modern Philosophy”, but he was also …

a. The Geometry of Rene Descartes | Mathematical Association of

b. Descartes‘ Mathematics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

c.Descartes and the birth of analytic geometry

207- SIR ISAAC NEWTON: 1642-1727AD… Newton, an English physicist and mathematician– most influential scientists of “all time;”…

a. Isaac Newton | Biography, Facts, Discoveries, Laws, & Inventions

b. Isaac Newton’s Life | Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences

c. Sir Isaac Newton Facts, information, pictures |

208- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1642-1646AD… THE WAR BETWEEN CHARLES I AND THE PARLIAMENT…The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and .

a. Charles I | king of Great Britain and Ireland |

b. BBC – History – King Charles I

c. History of the Monarchy > The Stuarts > Charles I

209- WILLIAM PENN: 1644-1718AD… Penn was an English entrepreneur of real estate, philosopher, and an early quake; an early advocate of Democracy and religious freedom…

a. Brief History of William Penn –

b.William Penn – Journalist, Minister, Missionary, Lawyer – Biography

c. William Penn Was Born – America’s Library

210- GOTTFRIED WILHELM LEIBNIZ: 1646-1716AD… Leibniz, a prominent German polymath and philosopher. Leibniz’s first calculus publication…

a. Leibniz summary – MacTutor History of Mathematics

b.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – The Metaphysics Research Lab

c. The Kalam Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God

211- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1648AD… TREATY OF WESTPHALIA ENDS THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR…These treaties ended the Thirty YearsWar the Holy Roman …

a. Thirty Years War ends – Oct 24, 1648 –

b.Peace of Westphalia Facts, information, pictures |

c. The Thirty YearsWar & the Peace of Westphalia: Summary

212 MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?…Geography is the study of Earth’s landscapes, peoples, places and environments…

a.What is geography? – Royal Geographical Society

b.What is Geography? – National Geographic Education

c.What is Geography? – Definition, Facts & Types – Video & Lesson

213- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1648AD-1789AD… AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT…The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution.

a. Europe history 1789 AD – Time Maps

b. Scandinavia 1789AD – TimeMaps

c.France 1789AD – TimeMaps

214- JACOB BERNOULLI: 1654-1705AD… Bernoulli was a prominent English mathematician who introduced the modern probability theory…

a.Jacob Bernoulli – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Bernoulli Jacob biography – MacTutor History of Mathematics

c. Jakob Bernoulli | Swiss mathematician |

215- JOHN EVELYN: 1660AD… John Evelyn, who helped to found the Royal Society at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London

a.History | Royal Society

b. Royal Society | British science society |

c. The Royal Society of London – The Euler Archive

216- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1666AD… French Royal Academy of Science founded…Colbert Presenting the Members of the Royal Academy of Sciences to Louis XIV …

a. French Academy of Sciences – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Academy of Sciences | French organization |

c. French Royal Academy of Sciences, 1671 – Science Photo Library

217- JONATHAN SWIFT: 1667-1745AD… Swift, and Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, poet, and cleric…

a. Jonathan Swift – Writer –

b. Jonathan Swift [1667-1745]: free web books, online

c. The Life of Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) – Luminarium

218- ANTON LEEUWENHOEK’S: 1673AD… Anton Leeuwenhoek’s first published microscope observations…

a.ntonie van LeeuwenhoekWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Antonie van Leeuwenhoek | Dutch scientist |

c.History of Microbiology: Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, and Cohn


a. Habeas Corpus Act 1679 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Habeas Corpus Act 1679 – Constitution Society

c. British History Timeline, Britain through the ages – Being British


a. Battle of Vienna – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. 1683: The Siege of Vienna | History Today

c. 322nd Anniversary of “The Battle of Vienna” (Polish king saves


a. The period of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1661-1700

b. The Edict of Fontainebleau or the Revocation (1685) | Musée virtuel

c.Louis XIV | king of France |

222- JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH: 1685-1750AD… Bach is a well-known German composer and musician during the Baroque period….

a. Johann Sebastian Bach – Composer –

b. Johann Sebastian Bach Childhood – Famous People

c. Johann Sebastian Bach Essay Examples | Kibin


a.Mineral Chemistry – Tulane University

b.20. mineralogy and chemical composition of clay minerals

c.igneous rock | geology |


a.Seven BishopsTrial – Legal Dictionary – The Free Dictionary

b. James II and the Trial of the Seven Bishops | W. Gibson | Palgrave

c. Seven Bishops – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

225- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1688AD…THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION… Revolution of 1688, or Bloodless Revolution , in English history, the events of 1688–89 that resulted in the …

a. Glorious Revolution | English history |

b. BBC – History – British History in depth: The Glorious Revolution

c.The 5th of November 1688 AD, Glorious Revolution begins

226- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS CHEMISTRY?… is the study of matter, its properties, how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances, and how substances …

a.What Is Chemistry? – Live ience

b.What Is Chemistry? – Definition –

c.General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Introduction: What is chemistry?

227- MONTESQUIEU: 1689-1755AD… “Charles-Louis de Secondt” was a French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher… Famous for his theory of the separations of powers…

a. charles de secondat, baron de montesquieu (1689 – Liberal Vision

b. Charles Louis de Secondat baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu

c. Articles: Cicero and Obama – American Thinker


a. BBC – History – The Battle of the Boyne

b.Battle of the Boyne: King William III’s Victory in Ireland | History Net

c. Boyne Valley Brochure – Discover Ireland


a. The 13th of February 1692 AD, Massacre of Glencoe

b. Massacre of Glencoe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. The Glencoe Massacre’s 320-year-old curse on my name | UK news


a.What is Botany? – Botanical Society of America

b.What can I do with a major in Botany? – University of Oklahoma

c.Botany: The Original Natural Science | EnvironmentalScience.


a.Zoological Subspecies of Man – America First Books

b.gastrozooid | zoology |

c.Science Jobs & Careers – Different Types of Scientists – Facts

232- BENJAMIN FRANKLIN: 1706-1790AD… Franklin is known as one of the founding fathers of the United States of America…

a.Benjamin Franklin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Benjamin Franklin His Autobiography 1706-1757

c.Benjamin Franklin – Diplomat, Scientist, Inventor, Writer – Biography

233- HENRY FIELDING: 1707-1754AD… Fielding was an English novelist and dramatist who is known for his satirical prowess and earthy humor. ..

a. Henry Fielding – Writer –

b. Henry Fielding Biography – CliffsNotes

c.Henry Fielding Facts, information, pictures |

234- SPECIAL TOPICS…WHAT IS CHIROPRACTIC?…Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the …

a. ChiropracticWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Chiropractic treatment techniques – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. First Time Chiropractor Neck & Back Adjustment YouTube

235- SAMUEL JOHNSON: 1709-1784AD… Johnson an English writer; a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor, and lexicographer…

a. Samuel Johnson – Author, Editor, Journalist, Poet –

b. BBC – History – Samuel Johnson

c.Samuel Johnson Facts, information, pictures |

236- DAVID HUME: 1711-1776AD… Hume a philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist– highly radical philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism…

a. David Hume – died 1776AD – Philosophy –

b. David Hume > By Individual Philosopher > Philosophy


237- JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU: 1712-1778AD… Rousseau a French philosopher, writer, and composer…. The French Enlightenment was influenced by Rousseau’s political philosophy…

a. JeanJacques Rousseau – died 1778 – Philosopher.

b. Spark-notes: JeanJacques Rousseau (1712–1778)

c. POLITICAL THEORY – JeanJacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778

238- LAURENCE STERNE: 1713-1768AD… Sterne, an Anglo-Irish novelist and Anglican clergyman…

a. Laurence Sterne – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Brief biography of Laurence Sterne (1713-1768)

c.Laurence Sterne Facts, information, pictures |

239- SAMUEL ADAMS: 1722-1803AD… Adams is most known as one of the Founding Fathers of The United States…

a. Samuel Adams, Jr. (1722 – 1803) – Genealogy – Geni

b.Samuel Adams – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Samuel Adams –

240- ADAM SMITH: c.1723-1790AD..Samuel Adams – US Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations…

a. dam Smith – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Adam Smith (1723-1790)

c.Adam Smith – Philosopher, Political Scientist, Journalist, Educator

241- IMMANUEL KANT: 1724-1804AD… Kant, a German philosopher, is highly considered as the most central influential figure of modern philosophy.

a. Immanuel Kant – Philosopher –

b. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals

c.What is moral autonomy? – Quora

242- CATHERINE THE GREAT: 1729-1796AD… Catherine II was an empress of
Russia… longest-ruling female leader of Russia….

a. Catherine the Great – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Civilization V Leader | Catherine of Russia – YouTube

c.Catherine The Great Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

243- ROBERT TREAT PAINE: 1731-1814AD …Paine was an American lawyer and politician out of Massachusetts.

a. Robert Treat Paine –

b. PAINE, Robert Treat – Biographical Information

c.Robert Treat Paine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

244-GEORGE WASHINGTON: 1732-1799AD… Washington was the first president of The United States of America, the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army……

a. 1732 Washington Archives –

b.George Washington, 1732–1799 | Papers of George Washington

c.Washington, George (1732–1799) – Encyclopedia Virginia

d. George Washington – U.S. President, General –

245- ROBERT MORRIS: 1734-1806AD… Morris is one of the Founding Fathers of The United States as well as one of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence…

a.A Biography of Robert Morris 1734-1806 < Biographies < American

b.Robert Morris (1734-1806), University of Pennsylvania University

c.Robert Morris –

246- JOHN ADAMS: 1735-1826AD… Adams, an American lawyer, author, statesman, and diplomat– who was the second U.S. president as well as the first U.S. vice president…

a. John Adams – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Adams Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. English: Quotes of Zion


a. What Is Music? | Thinking Sounds – by Marcel Cobussen

b. Music – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. What is music? how it affects moods, emotions, creating atmosphere

248- JOHN HANCOCK: 1737-1793AD…John Hancock signed the Declaration of Independence and promoted reveloution…

a. John Hancock Biography – Encyclopedia of World Biography

b. John Hancock – U.S. Governor, U.S. Representative –

c.John Hancock | United States statesman |

249- EDWARD GIBBON: 1737-1794AD…Edward Gibbon was an English historian and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall …

a. Edward Gibbon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Edward Gibbon – Online Library of Liberty

c. Edward GIBBON (1737 – 1794) – LibriVox

250- CHARLES CARROLL: 1737-1832AD…He was the only catholic and the longest-lived (and last surviving) signatory of the Declaration of Independence, dying at the age of 95…

a. Charles Carroll of Carrollton – The Signer | Charles Carroll House

b. Charles Carroll of Carrollton – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Catholic Founding Fathers – The Carroll Family


a.Methodism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Methodist Origins, Methodist History, Methodist Beliefs – Patheos

c.The History of Methodism | Methodist Heritage

252- JAMES BOSWELL: 1740-1795AD…was a Scottish biographer and diarist, born in Edinburgh.

a. James Boswell (1740-1795) | James Boswell .info

b. James Boswell (1740-1795) – The Boswell Trust

c.James Boswell – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

253- JOHN PENN: 1741-1788AD…was born in Caroline County, Virginia, to a family of means...

a.John Penn (Continental Congress) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Penn –

c.John Penn | The Society of the Descendants of the Signers of the

254- GEORGE WALTON: 1741-1804AD…one of Georgia’s leading lawyers. In 1775, he became secretary of the Georgia Provincial Congress…

a. George Walton (c.1741 – c.1804) – Genealogy – Geni

b.George Walton | The Society of the Descendants of the Signers of

c. George Walton (1749 – 1804) – Find A Grave Memorial

255- Antoine Lavoisier: 1743-1794AD… Lavoisier discovers oxygen, initiates the chemical revolution…

a. Antoine Lavoisier – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier | Chemical Heritage Foundation

c. Antoine Lavoisier – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

256- THOMAS JEFFERSON: 1743-1826AD…Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence… In 1801, he became the United Statesthird President...

a.Thomas Jefferson, A Brief Biography | Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello

bTimeline of Jefferson’s Life | Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello

c. .Thomas Jefferson |

d.Thomas JeffersonU.S. Presidents –

e. List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union

257-BENJAMIN RUSH: 1745-1813AD…the “father of American psychiatry,” was the first to believe that mental illness is a disease of the mind…

a.Pennsylvania Hospital History: Stories – Dr. Benjamin Rush

b.Benjamin Rush is born – Dec 24, 1745 –

c.Benjamin Rush –

258- JOHANN WOLFGANG von GOETHE: 1749-1832AD…German poet, playwright, novelist, and natural philosopher is best known for his two-part poetic drama Faust, …

a.Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – The Literature Network

c.J.W. von Goethe | The German Way & More

259- THOMAS WRIGHT: 1750AD… Thomas Wright’s Newtonian cosmology…was one of the first to suggest how the universe might be constructed. …

a.The Cosmology of Thomas Wright of Durham

b.Cosmological Theories Through History – The Physics of the Universe original theory or new hypothesis of the universe | Tumblr

260- JAMES MADISON: 1751-1836AD…was an American statesman, political theorist. He was the fourth President of the United …

a.James Madison (1751-1836) < Biographies < American History

b.About this Collection – The James Madison Papers, 1723-1859

c.The Political Education of James Madison | History Today

e. The Original Bill of Rights Had 12 Amendments, Not 10

261- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1755AD…BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT…The Braddock expedition, also called Braddock’s campaign or, more commonly, Braddock’s Defeat

a.Braddock Expedition – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Braddock’s defeat Battle of Monongahela river – British Battles

c. The Organization of Braddock’s Army


a. 1755 Lisbon earthquake – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Historical Depictions of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake

c. Lisbon earthquake of 1755 | Portugal |

263- MOZART: 1756-1791AD…Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a musician capable of playing multiple instruments …

a. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Wolfgang Mozart – Pianist, Composer –

c. Renown Ego’s: a timeline of historical ego’s – The Order of Time

264- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1756-1763AD… THE SEVEN YEAR’S WAR…The French and Indian War was the North American conflict in a larger imperial war between Great Britain and France

a. The Seven Year War Website ( French and Indian War )

b. The Seven Years War: Crash Course World History #26 – YouTube

c. Seven Years War – New World Encyclopedia

265- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1776…WATT-BOULTON STEAM ENGINES… became commercially available…

a.Watt steam engine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Boulton and Watt Engine – Museum Of Applied Arts And Sciences

c.Boulton and Watt steam engine , 1785 – Powerhouse Museum

266- JAMES MONROE…: 1758-1831AD…was the fifth President of the United States..

a. James Monroe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. James Monroe – Miller Center

c. James Monroe |

267- JOHN DOLLOND: 1758AD John Dollond patents color-corrected microscope lens…

a. John Dollond – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Dollond – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

c. John Dollond – Florida State University

268- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1763-1766AD… PROSECUTION OF JOHN WILKES… and passing of the Stamp Act…

a.George Grenville – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. George Grenville | prime minister of Great Britain |

c. A Summary of the 1765 Stamp Act : The Colonial Williamsburg

d. Stamp Act – American Revolution –

269- ANDREW JACKSON: 1767-1845AD…was the seventh President of the United States

a. Andrew Jackson 1767-1845 A brief biography

b.Andrew Jackson 1767-1845 A brief biography < Biographies

c. Andrew Jackson Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

270- JOHN QUINCY ADAMS…1776-1848…6th President of the United States…

a.Biography of John Quincy Adams

b.John Quincy Adams, 6th President of the United States (1767 – 1848

c. John Quincy Adams |

271- JAMES HARGREAVES: 1767AD… James Hargreaves’ spinning jenny…

a. James Hargreaves – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. James Hargreaves | English inventor |

c. James Hargreaves | Biography, Inventions and Facts


a.American Revolutionary War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. American Revolution History – History Channel

c. US History Timeline: War of Independence


a. The Invention of the Steam Engine

b. Industrial History: The History of the Steam Engine – ThomasNet

c.History of the steam engine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

274- JEAN BAPTISTE: 1768-1830AD… Joseph Fourier…School of Mathematics…

a. Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768 – 1830) – School of Mathematics

b. Baron Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier –

c. Fourier , Jean Baptiste Joseph – Mathematical & Statistical Sciences

275- NAPOLEON BONAPARTE: 1769-1821AD…also known as Napoleon I, was a French military leader and emperor who conquered much of Europe in the early 19th …

a. Napoleon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Napoleon Bonaparte – Facts & Summary –

c. Civilization V Leader | Napoleon of France – YouTube


a. James Watt | Scottish inventor |

b. BBC – History – James Watt

c. James Watt – Building the Steam Engine – Inventors –


a. What is education? definition and meaning –

b. Education – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. What Is Education?, Jackson – University of Chicago Press

278- BEETHOVEN: 1770-1827AD…He was an innovator, widening the scope of sonata, …

a. Ludwig van Beethoven – Pianist, Composer –

b. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) – British Library

c. Ludwig van Beethoven Biography – Profile, Childhood, Life, Timeline

279- GEORGE WILHELM: 1770-1831AD Friedrich Hegel…one of the greatest systematic thinkers in the history of Western philosophy. In addition to epitomizing …

a. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel – Philosopher –

c. Hegel – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

280- WILLIAM WORDSWORTH: 1770-1850AD…Wordsworth’s magnum opus is generally considered to be The Prelude, a semi autobiographical poem…

a. William Wordsworth – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – History – Historic Figures: William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

c.William Wordsworth Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

281- RICHARD ARKWRIGHT: 1771AD… Richard Arkwright’s water-powered spinning “frame”…

a. Richard Arkwright – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Richard Arkwright | HISTORY

c. Arkwright’s Water Frame spinning machine – BBC

282- SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE: 1772-1834AD…the English Romantic poet and opium addict who wrote ‘The Rime of the Ancient …

a. Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Philosopher, Poet, Literary Critic

c. Samuel Taylor Coleridge : The Poetry Foundation

283- WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON: 1773-1891ADS…was the ninth President of the United States. He died shortly after taking the office in 1841, having the shortest…

a.William Henry Harrison – U.S. Presidents –

b.William Henry Harrison: Accomplishments, Campaign & Presidency

c. William Henry Harrison – Top 10 Forgettable Presidents – TIME


a.Boston Tea Party – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Destruction of British East India Company Tea | Boston Tea Party

c. Sons of Liberty dump British tea – Dec 16, 1773 –

285- MERIWETHER LEWIS: 1774-1809AD…The official leader of the epic Lewis and Clark Expedition…

a. Meriwether Lewis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Meriwether Lewis, Captain (1774 – 1809) – Genealogy – Geni

c. PBS – THE WEST – Meriwether Lewis


a. The U.S. Constitution – Facts & Summary –

b. The American Revolution and Constitution by Stephanie Harvey

c. Slavery, the American Revolution, and the Constitution – Digital History

e. The Original Bill of Rights Had 12 Amendments, Not 10


a.Declaration of Independence

b.Declaration of Independence – Office of the Historian

c.Declaration of Independence – Text Transcript

e. The Original Bill of Rights Had 12 Amendments, Not 10

288- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1777AD Surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga…

a.Surrender of General Burgoyne | Architect of the Capitol | United

b. The Defeat and Surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga | Teaching

c. Battles of Saratoga – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


a.Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown – Oct 19, 1781 –

b.Siege of Yorktown – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

290- ZACHARY TAYLOR: 1784-1850AD…a general and national hero in the United States Army

a.Zachary Taylor – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Zachary Scott Taylor, 12th President of the United States (1784

c. Zachary Taylor is born – Nov 24, 1784 –

291- CALVIN COOLIDGE: 1784-1933AD…President Harding died unexpectedly while in office, so the vice president, Calvin Coolidge, stepped up.

a. Calvin Coolidge: Impact and Legacy—Miller Center

b. Calvin Coolidge |

c. Calvin Coolidge – U.S. Presidents –


a.Russo-Crimean Wars – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Russo-Crimean Wars – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. History of Crimea – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

293- ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER: 1788-1860AD…one of the greatest philosophers of the 19th century

a.Arthur Schopenhauer | German philosopher |

b.Arthur Schopenhauer – died 1860AD – Philosophy

c. Arthur Schopenhauer – The Proceedings of the Friesian School


a.French Revolution: 1789 AD1815 AD – NYSED Global History and

b.French Revolution – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.French Revolution – Facts & Summary –

295- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1789AD The taking of the Bastille…

a. Storming of the Bastille – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. French revolutionaries storm Bastille – Jul 14, 1789 –

c. French Revolution – Storming the Bastille – Awesome Stories

296- MICHAEL FARADAY: 1791-1867AD…was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and …

a. Michael Faraday – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Michael Faraday – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

c.Michael Faraday Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

297-SPECIA TOPIC…WHAT IS CAPITALISM? …ADAM SMITH, FATHER OF CAPITALISM…Means of production and distribution mostly in the hands… b.What is capitalism? – The Capitalism Site

c.What Is Capitalism? – Back to Basics – Finance & Development, June


a.What is Socialism? | World Socialist Movement

b.What Is Socialism? – YouTube

c.Socialism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

299-SPECIAL TOPICS…WHAT IS MIXTURISM? …JAMES CARROLL, FATHER OF MIXTURISM…Means of production and distribution mostly in the hands of private and joint enterprise… and infrastructure such as roads , bridges, schools, heath insurance, Social Security,etc. in the hands of public enterprise…

a.The Philosophy of Mixturism – Internet Free Press

b.August 14, 2015 – Internet Free Press

c. Social security can only go broke because of ignorance about ..

d. .Mixturism

300- ERASMUS DARWIN: 1794AD…was an English physician… One of the key thinkers of the Midlands Enlightenment, he was also a natural …

a. Erasmus Darwin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Erasmus Darwin – University of California Museum of Paleontology

c. Erasmus Darwin | British physician |

301- JAMES K. POLK: 1795-1849AD…was the 11th President of the United States (1845–49). Polk was born in Mecklenburg County, North …

a. James K. Polk – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.North Carolina History Project : James K. Polk (1795-1849)

c.The U.S.-Mexican War . Prelude to War . James K. Polk (1845-1849

d. List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union – Wikipedia, the

302- EVENTS/IDEAS: WAR OF 1812…American fears of the Native Americans ended, as did British plans to create a …. The War of 1812 was highly significant in Britain’s…

a. War of 1812 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. An American Perspective | War of 1812 | PBS

c. War of 1812 – Facts & Summary –


a. Colonialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b. colonialism, Western | politics |

c.Colonialism and Imperialism intro – YouTube


a. Imperialism | Define Imperialism at

b. Imperialism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. imperialism | political science |


a. The Nationalism Project: What is Nationalism?

b. Nationalism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. nationalism | politics |


a. What is Democracy? Definition, Types & History – LiveScience

b. What is Democracy? – YouTube

c. parliamentary democracy | government |

307- LAPLACE: 1799AD… Laplace’s Celestial Mechanics…

a. A treatise of celestial mechanics : Laplace, Pierre Simon, marquis de

b. Mathematical Treasures – Laplace’s Celestial Mechanics

c. Celestial Mechanics | work by Laplace |

308- VOLTA: 1800AD… Volta invents the electric battery… The invention of photography..

a. Volta describes the electric battery – American Physical Society

b. Alessandro Volta – Creator of the first Battery

c. History of Electricity

309- ROBERT FULTON…1801-1807AD… Robert Fulton invention of the Steamboat…

a. Robert Fulton – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Robert Fulton: Inventor of the Steamboat – Famous American Inventors

c. Robert Fulton | American inventor |

310- RALPH WALDO EMERSON: 1803-1882AD…was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid- 19th …

a. Ralph Waldo Emerson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Ralph Waldo Emerson – Philosopher, Journalist, Poet –

c.Ralph Waldo Emerson – American Transcendentalism Web

311- NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE: 1804-1864AD…American novelist, Dark Romantic, and short story writer …

a. Nathaniel Hawthorne – Author –

b. Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Literature Network

c. Nathaniel Hawthorne – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

312- FRANKLIN PIERCE: 1804-1869AD…Franklin Pierce was 14th President of the United States...

a. Franklin Pierce Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. Franklin Pierce (1804-1869)/biography – Familypedia – Wikia

c. Franklin Pierce – Miller Center

313- RICHARD TREVITHICK.. .the first locomotive… constructed the world’s first steam railway locomotive (1803). In 1805 …

a. Richard Trevithick – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Richard Trevithick | English engineer |

c. Richard TrevithickThe American Society of Mechanical Engineers

314- JEAN BAPTISTE CHARBONNEAU: 1805-1866AD… Jean Baptiste Charbonneau was an American explorer and military scout during the Mexican-American war…

a. Jean Baptiste Charbonneau – PBS

b. Jean Baptiste Charbonneau | San Diego History Center

c. .Jean Baptiste Charbonneau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


a. Dictatorship – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. dictatorship – Dictionary Definition :

c. . dictatorship | political science |

316- JOHN STUART MILL: 1806-1873AD…was a British philosopher and economist who is most famous for being a co-founder of Utilitarianism.

a. Spark Notes: John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)

b. Good and Evil – Renaissance

c John Stuart Mill – Utilitarian Philosophy

317- ROBERT E. LEE: 1807-1870AD…Robert E. Lee was a Confederate general during the American Civil War …

a. Robert E. Lee (1807-1870) – The Latin Library

b. Lee, Robert E. (ca. 1806–1870) – Encyclopedia Virginia

c. Robert E. Lee Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

318- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: 1807-1882AD…was an American poet and educator whose works include “Paul Revere’s Ride”, The Song …

a.Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882 – The Online Books Page

b. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: A Maine Historical Society Web Site

c. About Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

319- JOHN DALTON… John Dalton introduces modern atomic theory…

a. John Dalton – Chemist, Scientist, Meteorologist –

b. John Dalton and Atomic Theory – Boundless

c. Dalton’s atomic theory – Antoine

320- Andrew Johnson: 1808-1875AD…was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869…

a. Andrew Johnson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Andrew Johnson – U.S. President –

c. Mr. Lincoln’s White House – Andrew Johnson (1808-1875)

321- EDGAR ALLEN POE: 1809-1849AD… was an American writer, editor, and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry …

a.Edgar Allan Poe, 1809-1849 – Documenting the American South

b. A short biography of Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) –

c Edgar Allan Poe Was Born – America’s Library.

322- ABRAHAM LINCOLN: 1809-1865AD… the 16th U.S. president, on … Civil Rights Activist, U.S. Representative, U.S. President, Lawyer (1809–1865)…

a. Abraham Lincoln – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Abraham Lincoln Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

c. Lincoln on Pinterest | Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln and

323- CHARLES DARWIN: 1809-1882AD… introduce the theory of evolution to the scientific community…. Darwin’s On the Origin of Species…

a. Charles Darwin – Biologist, Scientist –

b.Charles Darwin History – Theory of Evolution

c.Charles Darwin on Pinterest | Karl Marx, Isaac Newton and

324- LORD ALFRED TENNYSON: 1809-1892AD…was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria’s …

a. Alfred, Lord Tennyson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Alfred Lord Tennyson Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

c. Lord Alfred Tennyson | Academy of American Poets

325- JEAN-BAPTISTE LAMARCK 1809AD …Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s Zoological Philosophy…

a. JeanBaptiste Lamarck – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Zoological Philosophy by JeanBaptiste Lamarck — Reviews

c.Jean Baptiste Lamarck –

326- Theodor Rousseau: 1812-1867AD… was a French painter of the Barbizon school.

a.Théodore Rousseau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The Forest in Winter at Sunset – Metropolitan Museum of Art

c. Théodore Rousseau on artnet

327- CHARLES DICKENS: 1812-1870AD…was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world’s …

a. Charles Dickens – Author –

b.Charles Dickens – The Literature Network

c. Full text of “The Dickens Student And Collector A List Of Writings

328- ROBERT BROWNING: 1812-1889AD…was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of the dramatic monologue made him one of the …

a.Robert Browning – The Literature Network

b. Robert Browning – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Robert Browning : The Poetry Foundation

329- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1812AD… THE MOSCOW CAMPAIGN…Napoleon’s determination to implement the Continental System had led him to …

a. Napoleon’s Moscow Campaign: 1812 – A Web of English History

b.French invasion of Russia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Napoleon’s Russian campaign: From the Niemen to Moscow

330- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1813AD…THE BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE…The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes called the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813…

a. The Battle of Lake Erie – Perry’s Victory & International Peace

b.The Battle of Lake Erie – Sep 10, 1813 –

c. The Battle of Lake Erie – Perry’s Victory & International Peace

331- NAPOLEON 1815AD… With the fall of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the Papal States were restored once more. …..

a. Temporal power (papal) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Papal States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

. c. Napoleon and the Catholic Church – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


a. The Holy Alliance : Western Civilization II Guides

b. Holy Alliance – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Holy Alliance | Europe |

333- HENRY DAVID THOREAU: 1817-1862AD…writer, naturalist, philosopher, pencil maker, surveyor, Transcendentalist, inspector of …

a. Henry David Thoreau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Henry David Thoreau – Philosopher, Journalist, Poet –

c.Henry David Thoreau Biography | List of Works, Study Guides

334- KARL MARX: 1818-1883AD…. thinker of the 19th century… Karl Marx – philosopher and writer of The Communist Manifesto…

a. Karl Marx (1818-1883) | Issue 102 | Philosophy Now

b.Karl Marx – died 1883AD – Philosophy –

c.Karl Marx – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


a. What is communism? definition and meaning

b. What Is Communism? – YouTube

c. What Is Communism? | Socialism Communism Capitalism


a.What Is Macro Economics – Over 100 Million Visitors –

b.What is Economics? – Why Study Economics

c. What is Economics? – YouTube

337- WALT WHITMAN: 1819-1892AD…an American poet, essayist and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition …

a.Walt Whitman – Journalist, Poet –

b. Contents. Whitman, Walt. 1900. Leaves of Grass –

338- QUEEN VICTORIA: 1819-1901AD…was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death …

a.Queen Victoria –

b. BBC – iWonder – Queen Victoria: The woman who redefined Britain’s

c. HM Queen Victoria (1819-1901) – Museum Victoria Collections

339- FRIEDRICH ENGELS: 1820-1895AD…Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, social scientist and political theorist

a.Friedrich Engels – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) | Heidi Rimke –

c.Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) Philosoph und Unternehmer

340- SUSAN B. ANTHONY:1820-1906AD…was an American social reformer and feminist who played a pivotal role in the women’s suffrage …

a. Susan B. Anthony House :: Her Story

b.Susan B. Anthony – Publisher, Civil Rights Activist, Editor, Women’s

c. Susan B. Anthony Quotes – Famous Quotes


a. What is Philosophy? / Undergraduate Program / Programs

b. Islamic philosophy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Philosopher | Define Philosopher at

342- FYODOR DOSTOYEVSKY: 1821-1881AD…Dostoyevsky’s literary works explore human psychology in the context of the …

a.Fyodor Dostoyevsky – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Fyodor Dostoevsky (Dostoyevsky) | Crime and Punishment | The

c.Fyodor Dostoevsky Biography | List of Works, Study Guides

343- ULYSSES S. GRANT: 1822-1885AD…Ulysses S. Grant rose from command of an Illinois regiment to general-in-chief of all Union armies during the American Civil War …

a. Grant, Ulysses S. (1822–1885) – Encyclopedia Virginia

b. Ulysses S. Grant – U.S. Presidents –

c. Ulysses S. Grant |

344- RUTHERFORD B. HAYES: 1822-1893AD…was the 19th President of the United States (1877–81). As president, he oversaw the end of …

a. Rutherford B. Hayes – U.S. Presidents –

b.Rutherford B. Hayes |

c.Rutherford B. Hayes Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

345- SPECIAL TOPIC…AMERICAN CIVIL WAR…widely known in the United States as the Civil War fought from 1861 to 1865 to …

a.American Civil War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.A Brief Overview of the American Civil War – Civil War Trust

c.American Civil War History – History Channel

346- JOSEPH FOURIER: 1822AD… Joseph Fourier’s analytical theory of heat is published…

a. The analytical theory of heat

b. Joseph Fourier – Atmospheric Chemistry Observations & Modeling

c. The Analytical Theory of Heat | work by Fourier |

347- LOUIS PASTEUR: 1822AD-1895AD… Louis Pasteur discovered two forms of tartaric acid crystals. Pasteur’s essay on fermentation founds the germ theory of disease.

a. Louis Pasteur Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. Louis Pasteur – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Louis Pasteur – Mini Biography – YouTube

348- SAMUEL BROWN: 1823AD… Samuel Brown begins production and sale of internal combustion engines…

a. Biography « Samuel M. Brown

b. Samuel L. Brown – University of Baltimore

c. Samuel Brown (engineer) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

349- GEORGE BOOLE: 1824AD …George Boole’s laws of thought… LAWS OF THOUGHT showed that logic is mathematical…

a. The Laws of Thought – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. An Investigation of the Laws of Thought: George Boole

c. George Boole (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

350- LEO TOLSTOY: 1828-1910AD…Leo Tolstoy was born in Tula Province, Russia. In the 1860s, he wrote his first great novel, War and Peace…

a.Leo Tolstoy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Leo Tolstoy – The Literature Network

c. Leo Tolstoy | Russian writer |

351- GEORGE STEPHENSON: 1828AD … Rocket steam locomotive…

a. Stephenson’sRocketlocomotive, 1829 – – Science Museum

b.Stephenson’s Rocket, The First Modern Steam Locomotive

c. George Stephenson’s First Steam Locomotive | History Today

352- JAMES M. CARROLL…1930 ..CURRENT…Chemist, News Paper Publisher, Insurance Salesperson, School Teacher, Author, writer, and book publisher, General Contractor, and Real Estate Broke, President and founder of Digital University of America,

a .Born out of the sun 2014

b. Mixturism

c. 3 steps to Success

d. Why We Dream

e. The Problem With Public Education

f. Words Every Good Reader Know

353- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1830-1857AD… THE CONQUEST OF ALGERIA…The Invasion of Algiers in 1830 was a large-scale military operation by which the Kingdom of France…

a. French conquest of Algeria – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Algeria on the Eve of the French Conquest

c. French Algeria 1830-1962 – The Algerian Story – Sites – Google

354- EMILY DICKINSON: 1830-1886AD…Emily Dickinson was one of the most famous American poets known for her unique and unconventional style of writing. ..

a. Biography of Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

b. Emily Dickinson Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. Emily Dickinson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

355- MICHAEL FARADAY: 1830AD Michael Faraday invents the dynamo. Faraday introduces the field concept…

a.Michael Faraday’s generator | The Royal Institution: Science Lives

b. Michael Faraday – Energy and kids – ESD – Bulgaria

c. Michael Faraday – Inventor of the Electric Motor – Inventors –

356- JAMES C. MAXWELL: 1831-1879AD…Many physicists regard Maxwell as the 19th-century scientist having the greatest …

a.James C. Maxwell – Scholar, Physicist, Scientist –

b.James Clerk MaxwellBiography, Facts and – Famous Scientists

.c James Clerk Maxwell –

357- JAMES A. GARFIELD: 1831-1881AD…was the 20th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his …

a. James A. Garfield is born – Nov 19, 1831 –

b. James A. Garfield – Miller Center

c.James A. Garfield Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

358- BENJAMIN HARRISON: 1833-1901AD…was the 23rd President of the United States (1889–93); he was the grandson of the ninth President …

a. Benjamin Harrison – U.S. President –

b. Benjamin Harrison |

c.Benjamin Harrison Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

359- SAMUEL LONGHORN CLEMENS: 1835-1910AD… Mark Twain…better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist. He wrote …

a.Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain) – Historic Missourians

b. Mark Twain – Writer –

c. Diary of Adam and Eve | Celebrating Holidays


a.What is Psychology? | Simply Psychology

b.What Is Psychology? –

c.BBC Science | Human Body & Mind | What is Psychology?

361- GROVER CLEVELAND: 1837-1908AD… was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States…

a. Grover Cleveland – U.S. Presidents –

b. Grover Cleveland – Internet Public Library

c. Stephen] Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) | Princeton University Art


a. Free trade – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Economic history: Why did The Economist favour free trade? | The

c. The History of “Free Trade” – Elegant Technology

363- JAMES J. HILL… 1838-1916AD…was “the last and greatest American railroad leader in the heroic era.” …

a. James J. Hill – –

b.James J. Hill . Streamliners: America’s Lost Trains . WGBH American

c. James J. Hill Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

364- FRIEDRICH BESSEL: 1838AD… Friedrich Bessel measures the distance to star Cygnus…

a. Friedrich Bessel – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel | German astronomer |

c. 1838: Friedrich Bessel Measures Distance to a Star | Everyday


a.Theodor Schwann Theorizes that All Living Things are Made of Cells

b.Theodor Schwann – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

c.Matthias Jakob Schleiden – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

366- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1839-1860AD…THE OPENING OF CHINA…Past and present information…

a.The Opening to China Part I: the First Opium War, the United States

b.1972 Nixon visit to China – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Insights from Nixon’s visit to China

367- WILLIAM JAMES: 1842-1910AD…was America’s greatest psychologist, and became one of its great philosophers. In The Principles of Psychology (1890) he investigated …

a. William James (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b. William James Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c.William James (1842-1910) | Issue 105 | Philosophy Now

368- WILLIAM McKinley: 1843-1901AD…was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination in …

a. William McKinley – U.S. President –

b.William McKinley Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

c.William McKinley – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

369- HENRY JAMES: 1843-1916AD…noted American-born English essayist, critic, and author of the realism movement wrote The Ambassadors (1903), The Turn of the …

a. Henry James – The Literature Network

b.Henry James Biography | List of Works, Study Guides & Essays ..

c.Henry James Quotes – Famous Quotations By Henry James

370- HENRI ROUSSEAU: 1844-1910AD… was a French Post-Impressionist painter…

a. Henri Rousseau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Art by Henri Rousseau – Museum Syndicate

c. Rousseau, Henri – Biographical Dictionary –

371- SAMUEL F. B. MORSE: 1844AD… Samuel F.B. Morse’s pilot installation of an electric telegraph…

a. Samuel F.B. Morse | American artist and inventor |

b.Samuel F.B. Morse: Inventor of the Telegraph and Morse Code

c. Samuel F. B. Morse – Inventor –


a. Northwest Passage – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Sir John Franklin: Fabled Arctic ship found – BBC News –

c.Northwest Passage Facts, information, pictures |

373- ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL: 1847-1922AD…the Scottish-born American scientist best known as the inventor of the telephone…

a.Alexander Graham Bell – Educator, Scientist, Inventor, Linguist

b. lexander Graham Bell – Inventions –

c. BBC – History – Alexander Graham Bell

374- THOMAS EDISON: 1847-1931AD…was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced …

a. Thomas Alva Edison, Inventor (1847 – 1931) – Genealogy – Geni

b.Thomas Alva Edison Facts, information, pictures |

c.Thomas Edison Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

375- HERMANN HELMHOLTZ: 1847AD… achieved a staggering number of scientific results, including the formulation of energy conservation, the vortex equations for fluid …

a. Hermann von Helmholtz (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b. Hermann von Helmholtz – 9ways Academia

c. Lydia Patton, Hermann Von helmholtz – PhilPapers


a. 1848 California Gold Discovery – Coloma, California

b. The Discovery of GoldCalifornia History Collection

c. James Marshall: California’s Gold Discoverer | History Net: Where


a. French Revolution of 1848 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The French Revolution of 1848: History, Causes & Events –

c.French History Timeline – Soft Schools

378-SPECIAL TOPIC… WHAT IS PROGRESSIVISM?…Progressivism is the term applied to a variety of responses to the economic and social problems…

a. Progressive | Define Progressive at

b. The Progressive Era (1890 – 1920)

c. What’s the Difference Between a Liberal and a Progressive?

379- WILLIAM RANKINE: 1850AD …William Rankine coins “energy” for Kraft; Rudolph Clausius founds thermodynamics, coins the term entropy…

a. William John Macquorn Rankine | Scottish engineer |

b. William John Macquorn Rankine –

c. Geotechnical Engineering Hall of Fame: Rankine – EJGE


a. conservatism | political philosophy |

b. What’s a Neoconservative? | The American Conservative

c. What are differences between a socialist, a democrat, a republican

381- WILLIAM THOMSON: 1851AD William Thomson proclaims the arrow of time… was an Irish mathematical physicist and engineer …

a.William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.William Thomson, Baron Kelvin | Scottish engineer, mathematician

c.BBC – History – Historic Figures: Sir William Thomson, Lord Kelvin

382- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1851AD…THE GREAT EXHIBITION…was the first international exhibition of manufactured products. It was organised by Henry Cole and Prince Albert…

a. The Great Exhibition – Victoria and Albert Museum

b. The Great Exhibition – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Interior of the Great Exhibition: 1851 – Museum of London Prints

383- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1853-1854AD …THE OPENING OF JAPAN…Commodore Perry was sent to Japan … The treaty mandated that two Japanese ports be opened…

a. The United States and the Opening to Japan, 1853 – 1830–1860

b.Commodore Perry and Japan (1853-1854) | Asia for Educators ..

c.Commodore Perry and Japan (1853-1854) | Asia for Educators

384- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A COLLECTIVE MONOPOLY?.. fewer than ten corporations that control over ninety percent of a good or service in an industry..

a.. Mixturism

b. people power price control

385- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1854-1856AD…THE CRIMEAN WAR…war fought mainly on the … British and French fleets entered the Black Sea…

a. Crimean War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Crimean War | Eurasian history [1853-1856] |

c. BBC – History – The Crimean War

386- OSCAR WILDE: 1854-1900AD…was an Irish playwright, novelist, essayist, and poet. After writing in different forms …

a. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)

b.Oscar Wilde – Writer –

c. A Man of Culture: May 2011

387- WOODROW WILSON: 1856-1924AD…was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United …

a.Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) – The George Washington University

b.BBC – History – Historic Figures: Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)

c.Thomas Woodrow Wilson, 28th President of the United States (1856

388- SIGMUND FREUD: 1856-1939AD…The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis

a.Sigmund Freud – My Webspace files

b.The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis (1910) – DSpace@MIT

c. PSYCHOTHERAPY – Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) Documentales

d. Carl Jung & Psychological Types | MBTI® Type Today

e. Alfred Adler – Psychology History

389- HENRY FORD: 1856-1943AD… Henry Ford and the Model T…Model T revolutionized transportation in America.

a.Henry Ford Model T Documentary Full video – YouTube

b. Henry Ford – Full Episode –

c. Henry Ford – PBS

390- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS SLAVERY…Slavery is defined as “the condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership…

a. What is slavery? – Anti Slavery Australia

b. What is forced labour? – Anti Slavery Australia

c. Triangular Trade: Route, System & Role in Slavery – Video & Lesson

391- WILLIAM PERKIN: 1856AD…William Perkin discovers the first synthetic dye... From this modest beginning grew the highly …

a. William Henry Perkin | Chemical Heritage Foundation

b William Henry Perkin Facts, information, pictures |

c. Chemistry during the 19th Century ( 1801 A.D. – 1900 A.D.)

392- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1857AD… THE INDIAN MUTINY…By the year 1857 the British had established complete political control of India.

a. Indian Mutiny | Indian history |

b. British India and the ‘Great Rebellion‘ – BBC

c. 57 stunning images from the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 –

393- WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT: 1857-1930AD…was an American jurist and statesman who served as the 27th President of the United States …

a. William Howard Taft |

b. Biography of William Howard Taft

c.William Howard Taft Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

394- ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE: 1858AD .. essay on evolution by natural selection…

a. Alfred Russel Wallace – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Natural Selection: Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace

c. Alfred Russel Wallace | British naturalist |

395- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS OPTIMISM?…The Optimist’s Creed… memorize it!…Promise Yourself. To be SO STRONG that nothing can disturb your peace of mind.

a.Positive psychology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Optimist Creed – Optimist International

c.The Optimist Creed (Tarcher Success Classics): Christian D. Larson

d. The Optimist Creed: Promise Yourself… – YouTube

396- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1861AD-1865AD… AMERICAN CIVIL WAR…widely known in the United States as simply the Civil … was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine…

a. American Civil War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Civil War Maps – Library of Congress

c.American Civil War 18611865YouTube

397- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1862AD… .MORRILL LAND GRANT ACT… triggers growth of engineering education in the U.S… was also known as the Land Grant College Act...

a. The Morrill Act of 1862

b. LandGrant College Act of 1862 | United States legislation ..

c. The Morrill Act and the LandGrant Colleges – University of Kentucky

398- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?…the study of society; a social science involving the study of the social lives of people, groups, and societies…

a.What is Sociology? | Department of Sociology

b. American Sociological Association: What is Sociology?

c. An Introduction to Sociology – American Sociological Association

399- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1863AD… THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SLAVES…Lincoln issued the final Emancipation … With the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation…

a. 10 Facts about the Emancipation Proclamation – Civil War Trust

b. Emancipation Proclamation – American Civil War –

c.Featured Document: The Emancipation Proclamation

400- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1863AD… THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG.. Although the Battle of Gettysburg did not end the war, it was the great battle of …

a. Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil War –

b.Battle Of Gettysburg | History Net: Where History Comes Alive

c. The Battle of Gettysburg, 1863 – EyeWitness to History


a. First Mexican Empire – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Second Mexican Empire – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Mexican Empire Will Rise To Challenge The USA – YouTube

402- JAMES K. POLK…was the 11th President of the United States from 1845 to 1849, the last strong President until the Civil …

a. James K. Polk – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. James K. Polk |

c. James K. Polk – U.S. Presidents –

403- RUDYARD KIPLING: 1865-1936AD…one of the best-known of the late Victorian poets and story- tellers. Although he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1907.

a.Rudyard Kipling : The Poetry Foundation

b.Rudyard Kipling Analysis –

c.If By Rudyard Kipling – Lectura Obligada | copy the poem IF and hang it on your wall…

404- GREGOR MENDEL: 1865AD.. Mendel publishes results of his researches…For decades after Gregor Mendel published his famous paper on inherited traits in 1865 AD, the field …

a. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance


c.La nascita della genetica, Mendel – Home page di Giampiero

405- JAMES CLERK MAXWELL: 1865AD… A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field…A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field [James Clerk Maxwell]…

a.A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field: James Clerk

b. Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field – Wikipedia, the

c.electromagnetism – What is reduced momentum in “A Dynamical

406- AUGUSTE KEKULE: 1865AD… Auguste Kekule announces the ring structure of the benzene molecule… and the birth of the structural theory of organic chemistry in 1858. …

a.August Kekulé – New World Encyclopedia

b. Friedrich August Kekulé – Chemistry Explained

c.August Kekule and the birth of the structural theory of organic

407- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1866AD… LAYING OF THE TRANSATLANTIC CABLE…The transatlantic cable reduced communication time considerably…

a. Transatlantic telegraph cable – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. First transatlantic telegraph cable completed – Aug 05, 1858

. c.How the first cable was laid across the Atlantic (Wired UK)

408- H. G. WELLS: 1866-1946AD… Outline of History…

a. The Outline of History (2 Volumes): H.G. Wells, Raymond Postgate

b.The Outline of History: The Whole Story of Man (2 Volumes): H. G.

c. The Outline of History – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

409- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1867AD… ANESTHETICS AND ANTISEPTICS…Anesthetics are chemicals that makes a patient go unconscious and/or feel no pain.

a. What are anesthetics and antiseptics –

b.Antisepsis – used, first, anesthetic, blood, body, uses, history

c.BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Anesthetics for pain

410- WILBUR AND OLIVER WRIGHT: 1867-1912AD… First flight of and airplane…Wilbur and Orville Wright were American inventors and pioneers of aviation. In 1903 the…

a. Wright Brothers – Inventions –

b. The Wright Brothers –

c. Wilbur and Orville Wright’s First Flight – America’s Library

411- MARIE CURIE: 1867-1934AD… Marie Curie names radioactivity, isolates polonium, and then radium…Marie and Piere Curie’s research led to the isolation of polonium…

a. Marie Curie | Biography |

b. Marie Curie | Biography |

c. Marie Curie – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

412- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1869AD…THE SUEZ CANAL…Egypt was the first country to dig a man-made canal across its lands to connect the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea…

a. Canal History – Suez Canal Authority

b. 9 Fascinating Facts About the Suez Canal – History in the Headlines

c. Suez Canal: History and Overview – Geography

413- MAHATMA GANDHI : 1869-1948AD…I know the path. It is straight and narrow. It is like the edge of a sword. I rejoice to walk on it. I weep when I slip. God’s word is…

a. Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) – Columbia University

b. I Know The Path – Mind of Mahatma Gandhi : Complete Book Online

c. Civilization V Leader | Gandhi of India – YouTube

414-MEXICAN– AMERICA WAR…1846-1848…Between 1846 and 1848, the United States and Mexico, went to war. It was a defining event for both nations…

a. The U.S.-Mexican War . War (1846-1848) | PBS

b. The U.S.-Mexican War | PBS

c.History of the War

415- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1870-1871ADFRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR , 1870–71, conflict between France and Prussia that signaled the rise of German…

a. FrancoPrussian War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. FrancoGerman War | European history |

c. The Franco Prussian War – International World History Project

416- VLADIMIR LENIN: 1870-1924A…Lenin was succeeded by Stalin after his death in 1924.

a. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Vladimir Lenin (1870 – 1924)

b. Time to Bury Lenin – The Catholic Thing

c. Vladimir Lenin – Alamy

417- SPANISH–AMERICA WAR…On April 25, 1898 the United States declared war on Spain following the sinking of the Battleship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898.

a. SpanishAmerican War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Spanish Americans – Countries and Their Cultures

c. Spanish American War – Facts & Summary –

418- GERTRUDE STEIN: 1874-1946AD…was a modern American writer.

a. Gertrude Stein – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Gertrude Stein : The Poetry Foundation

c.Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) – Georgetown University

419- HERBERT HOOVER: 1874-1964AD… Hoover was the 31st President of the United States (1929–33)… a professional mining engineer and …Great Depression…

a. Herbert Hoover – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Herbert Hoover Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c.President Herbert Hoover on TV! (1960) – YouTube

420- WINSTON CHURCHILL: 1874-1965AD…Although he is best known for his service as prime minister of Great Britain during World War 2, …

a.Museum Syndicate: Art by Winston Churchill

b. Winston Churchill – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

cWinston Churchill Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

421- HORACE MANNoften called the Father of the Common School, began his career … of Education in 1837, he used his position to enact major educational reform….

a.Horace Mann – PBS

b.Horace Mann | American educator |

c. Horace Mann, the End of Free-Market Education – Mackinac Center

422- KONRAD ADENAUER: 1876-1967AD…was the first chancellor of the German Federal Republic…

a. Konrad Adenauer: a pragmatic democrat and tireless unifier – Europa

b.Konrad Adenauer Facts, information, pictures |

c. Konrad Adenauer | The German Way & More

423- ROBERT KOCH 1877AD… isolates the cause of anthrax. Koch isolates tuberculosis bacterium. Koch isolates cholera bacterium…

a.Robert Koch – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Salt in Western New York: Retsof by Robert Koch

c. Glo Germ Classroom Kit Lessons – Educational Innovations

424- NIKOLA TESLA (1856-1943 AD)the eccentric genius known as the ‘wild man of electronics’, was without doubt one of the greatest minds in history…

a. Nikola Tesla – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Nikola Tesla – Engineer, Inventor –

c.Nikola Tesla (1856-1943 AD): Wireless Technology & Free Energy

425- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1878-1903AD… THE PONTIFICATION OF POPE LEO XIII…has seen the Catholic Church gain numbers and strength in America during his pontificate

a. Full text of “The life of Pope Leo XIII : containing a full and authentic

b. Leo XIII | pope |

c.Leo XIII Facts, information, pictures | articles

426- JOSEPH STALIN: 1879-1953AD…was the second leader of the Soviet Union. …

a.Joseph Stalin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Joseph Stalin, 1879-1953 – The History Guide

c.Joseph Stalin – Dictator –

427- ALBERT EINSTEIN: 1879-1955AD… Einstein’s “miracle year” of publication. Einstein’s general theory of relativity…

a.Albert Einstein – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. TOP 5 Scientists of the World – Employment News – Sarkari Naukri

c. Top 10 greatest Scientists who changed the world – EList10

428- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1881AD… THE RISE MAHDISM…The Mahdist Revolution was an Islamic revolt against the Egyptian government in the Sudan.

a.Mahdist Revolution (1881-1898) | The Black Past: Remembered and

b.Mahdist Sudan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


429- MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK: 1881-1938AD… the founder of the Turkish Republic and its first President, stands as a towering figure of the 20th Century…

a.Mustafa Kemal Atatürk – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK ( 1881-1938 ) – YouTube

c. M.Kemal ATATÜRK (1881-193∞) – Facebook

430- SPECIAL TOPIC… NATURE’S BASIC LAW OF ECONOMICS…There are only two kinds of resource : People and Natural …All goods and service flow from the action of people resources on natural resources…Money is a medium of exchange…

a. Mixturism…

b. Endowed with Democracy, an individual Bill Of Rights, and the

c. The Philosophy of Mixturism – Internet Free Press

431- PABLO PICASSO: 1881-1973AD..The artistic genius of Pablo Picasso has impacted the development of modern and contemporary art with unparalleled magnitude….

a.Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art

b. Pablo Picasso – Painter –

c. Paintings On The Wall – Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) – Paul McCartney

432- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1882AD… ITALIAN COLONIZATION ON THE RED SEA…The genesis of the Italian colonial empire was the purchase, in 1869…

a.Italian Colonization (1890-1941) –

b. Italian) Colonialism Did To My People Of (Eritrean) Kebessa – Awate

c. Political History of Eritrea before colonisation

433- JAMES JOYCE: 1882-1941AD…is one of Ireland’s most influential and celebrated writers. His most famous work is Ulysses (1922) which follows the movements of …

a. James Joyce – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Life | The James Joyce Centre

c.A brief biographical account of James Joyce, with resources.

434- VIRGINIA WOOLF: 1882-1941AD…was an English writer and one of the foremost modernists of the twentieth century...

a. Virginia Woolf – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Woolf, Virginia, 1882-1941: free web books, online

c.Woolf, Virginia (1882-1941) – British Library

435- FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT: 1882-1945AD…was the 32nd President of the United States of America...

a. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945)

b.F D Roosevelt Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. Franklin D. Roosevelt – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

436- JOHN M. KEYNES: 1883-1946AD…was an English economist whose ideas fundamentally …

a. BBC – History – John Maynard Keynes

b. John Maynard Keynes – Career Timeline

c. John Maynard Keynes – Journalist, Economist –

437- ELEANOR ROOSEVELT: 1884-1962AD…was an American politician, diplomat, and activist. She was the …

a. Eleanor Roosevelt – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Eleanor Roosevelt – Diplomat, U.S. First Lady –

c.Eleanor Roosevelt Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

438- HARRY S. TRUMAN: 1884-1972AD..He was Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s vice president for just 82 days before Roosevelt died and Truman ….

a. Truman: HST Biography – Harry S. Truman Library and Museum

b.Harry S. Truman – U.S. President –

c. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Harry S Truman (1884-1972)

439- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1886AD… THE GREAT SIBERIAN RAILWAY…Private Train Journey from‎ Beijing through Mongolia to Moscow..

a. Great Siberian Railway –

b. How to plan & book a journey on the TransSiberian Railway

c. TransSiberian Railway – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

440- T. S. ELIOT: 1888-1965AD…T.S. Eliot was born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1888. He published his first poetic masterpiece, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,”…

a. T.S. Eliot – Writer –

b.A Man of Culture: American Poetry XXII – T.S. Eliot – The Hollow Men

c. A Man of Culture: American Poetry X – T.S. Eliot – The Love Song of J

441- ADOLF HITLER: 1889-1945AD…was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from …

a. Adolf Hitler – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Adolf Hitler, 1889-1945 – The History Guide

c.Adolf Hitler – Uncyclopedia – Wikia

442- JAWAHARIAL NEHRU: 1889-1964AD…was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi, and had advocated for India’s release from British rule...

a. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)

b. Nehru, Jawaharlal (1889-1964) – King Encyclopedia

c. Nehru, Jawaharlal – Biographical Dictionary –

443- DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER: 1890-1969AD… as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 …

a. Dwight D. Eisenhower – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969)

c.Dwight D. Eisenhower Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

444- CHARLES de GAULLE: 1890-1970AD…was a military leader and the 18th President of France. ..

a. Charles de Gaulle – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Charles de Gaulle (1890 – 1970)

c.Charles De Gaulle Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

445- AGATHA CHRISTIE: 1890-1976AD…Best known for her 66 detective novels and 14 short story collections, Agatha Christie’s books have sold over a billion copies …

a. Agatha Christie – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Agatha Christie – Author, Playwright –

c. Agatha Christie Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

446- J. R. R. TOLKIEN: 1892-1973AD…was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who …

a. J. R. R. Tolkien – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.J. R. R. Tolkien – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. JRR Tolkien Biography – The Tolkien Society

447- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS THE INFINITESIMAL UNIFYING PARTICLE?…A discovery of the unifying infinitesimal particle and its relationship to the organization and behavior of all matter. Born Out. Of The Sun

a. Born out of the sun 2014

448- ALDOUS HUXLEY: 1894-1963AD….. English novelist and critic, best known for his dystopian novel Brave New World (1931). Besides novels he published travel books, …

a. Aldous Huxley – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Aldous Huxley – The Literature Network

c. Aldous Huxley Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

449- RICHARD BUCK MINSTER FULLER: 1895-1983AD…was a inventor and visionary who did not limit himself to one field but worked as a ‘comprehensive..

a.Buckminster Fuller – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. .Richard Buckminster Fuller – Environmental Activist, Architect..

c.About Fuller | The Buckminster Fuller Institute

450- HENRI BECQUEREL: 1896AD… Discovery of the X-RAYS… discovers radioactivity…was using naturally fluorescent minerals to study the properties of xrays…

a. The Discovery of Radioactivity

b. Henri Becquerel – Facts –

c.Benchmarks: Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity on February ..

451- GUGLIELMO MARCONI: 1896AD… introduces telegraphy “without wires.”…Nobel Prize-winning physicist… Guglielmo Marconi developed the first effective system of radio …

a. Guglielmo Marconi – Inventions –

b. Guglielmo Marconi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Guglielmo Marconi – Physicist, Inventor, Entrepreneur –

452- F. SCOTT FITZGERALD… 1896-1940AD… was an American novelist and short story writer, whose works are the paradigmatic …

a.F. Scott Fitzgerald – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.and short story writer, whose works are the paradigmatic …

c.F. Scott Fitzgerald – Author –

453-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS ASTRONOMY?…astronomy is the study of the sun, moon, stars, planets and other objects and phenomena in space. It has a long, rich history...

a.What are Science and Astronomy

bAstronomy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Astronomy – Introduction and History of the Study of Stars

454- WILLIAM FAULKNER: 1897-1962AD…was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi...

a. William Faulkner – Biographical –

b.William Faulkner – Biographical –

c. William Faulkner – Author –

455- J .J. THOMPSON: 1897AD… J.J. Thompson discovers the electron…

a. Joseph John Thomson | Chemical Heritage Foundation

b. Cambridge Physics – Discovery of the Electron

c. Discovery of the Electron – PBS

456- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1898AD …THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO…The Battle of Santiago de Cuba, fought between Spain and the United States on July 3, 1898…

a. Battle of Santiago – Spanish American War

b. Battle of Santiago | Spanish-American War |


457- SPECIAL TOPIC…HOW DO SEARCH ENGINES WORK?…There are three basic stages for a search engine: crawling – where content is discovered; indexing, …

a. How Search Engines Work – The Beginners Guide to SEO – Moz

b BBC Bitesize – How do search engines work?

c. How Search Works – The Story – Inside Search – Google

d How Do Search Engines Work? – YouTube


a.How Computers Work: Information (Part I) – YouTube

b.Computer – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Computer science – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

459- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1919AD… THE PEACE CONFERENCE…The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the Allied victors…

a. Paris Peace Conference, 1919 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Paris Peace Conference – Office of the Historian

c. Paris Peace Conference, 1919 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

460- SPECIAL TOPIC…HOW DOES THE INTERNET WORK?..The Internet lets you transfer information around the world in seconds. How does all that data get where…

a. How does the Internet work? | HowStuffWorks

b. BBC Bitesize – How does the internet work?

c. How Does the Internet Work ? – YouTube

461- ERNEST HEMINGWAY: 1899-1961AD…was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. His economical and understated style had a …

a. Ernest Hemingway – Author –

b. Ernest Hemingway – Biographical –

c.Ernest Hemingway Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

462- LEO STRAUSS: 1899-1973AD…was a German-Jewish philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy...

a. The Leo Strauss Center: Promoting the Study of Leo Strauss’s Thought

b.Reading Leo Strauss – University of Chicago Press

c.Leo Strauss – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

463- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1900AD…THE BOXER MOVEMENT…officially supported peasant uprising of 1900 that attempted to drive all foreigners from China…

a. Boxer Rebellion – Facts & Summary –

b. Boxer Rebellion – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Boxer Rebellion | Chinese history |

464- HUGO de VRIES: 1900AD……was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists. He is known chiefly for suggesting the concept of genes, rediscovering the …

a. Hugo de Vries :: DNA from the Beginning

b. Hugo de Vries | Dutch botanist and geneticist |

c. Hugo de Vries – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

465- MAX PLANCK: 1900AD… Max Planck’s quantum hypothesis…a German theoretical physicist whose work on quantum …

a. Max Planck – Biographical –

b. Max Planck – Biographical –

c.Welcome to…the history of the atom. – Angelfire

466- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1902AD…THECORONATIONOF KING EDWARD…The coronation of Edward VII and his wife Alexandra as King and Queen of the United Kingdom…

a.oronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra – Wikipedia

b. Edward VII – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Coronation Of Edward Vii (1902) – YouTube

467- JOHN STEINBECK: 1902-1968AD…. was an American author of twenty-seven books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction…

a.John Steinbeck – Author –

b. John Steinbeck – Biographical –

c John Steinbeck (1902-1968) – Georgetown University

468- GEORGE ORWELL: 1903-1950AD… Orwell felt that political action and political speech were necessary in order to live a life of integrity and honor.

a.Why did George Orwell write Animal Farm? –

b. Why did George Orwell write Animal Farm? –

c. SparkNotes: Animal Farm: Context

469- WILLIAM BATESON: 1903AD… was an English biologist who was the first person to use the term genetics to describe the study of heredity , …

a. William Bateson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. William Bateson (1861-1926) :: DNA Learning Center

c.William Bateson | British biologist |

470-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS JUDGEMENT…the ability to judge, make a decision, or form an opinion objectively, authoritatively, and wisely, especially in matters…

a.Judgment | Definition of Judgment by Merriam-Webster

b.Judgment | Definition of Judgment by Merriam-Webster

c. Judgement – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

471- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1904AD… BUICK AUTOMOBILE… In the summer of 1904, the company built the first Flint Buick. … Buick began production with the Model B…

a. Buick Heritage Alliance (BHA) – Buick Motor Division History

b. History & Heritage of Buick

c.BUICK models & history – Auto Evolution

472- JEAN–PAUL SARTRE: 1905-1980AD…focuses, in its first phase, upon the construction of a philosophy of existence known as existentialism...

a.JeanPaul Sartre – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia…

b. JeanPaul Sartre – Biographical –

c.Sartre, Jean Paul: Existentialism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

473- AYN RAND: 1905-1982AD… the author of The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, both of which promote …

a. The Liberal Institute: Proto-Liberal Intellectuals

b. Ayn Rand – Writer –

c. The Greatest Philosophers (Chronological) | Listology

474- SALVADOR ALLENDE: 1908-1973AD…became Chile’s first socialist president in 1970 before committing suicide during a 1973 military coup. … Presid

a. Salvador Allende – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Salvador Allende – President (non-U.S.) –

c. Salvador Allende | president of Chile |

475- LYNDON B. JOHNSON: 1908-1973AD… became the 36th president of the United States …. He died of a heart attack at age 64 on January 22, 1973, at his ranch.

a.Lyndon B. Johnson – U.S. Presidents –

b.President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Biography – LBJ Presidential Library

c.Lyndon Baines Johnson (19081973) < Biographies < American

476- MOTHER TERESA: 1910-1997AD…The famous missionary to India, Mother Teresa (1910-1997 AD) valued silence as necessary to hear the voice of God. ..

a.Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta

b.Loose Lips Sink Ships – Official Regent University Blogs

c.All through her life, Mother Teresa served people selflessly. Read

477- THOMAS HUNT MORGAN: 1910AD… Thomas Hunt Morgan localizes the “gene” for fruit-fly eye color…

a. Thomas Hunt Morgan at Columbia University

b.Thomas Hunt Morgan :: DNA from the Beginning

c. Thomas Hunt Morgan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

478- ERNEST RUTHERFORD: 1910AD …Ernest Rutherford’s Solar System model of the atom…

a.Ernest Rutherford – Biographical –

b.Ernest Rutherford – Physicist, Scientist –

c. Ernest Rutherford | Chemical Heritage Foundation.

479- RONALD REAGAN: 1911-2004AD…Former President Ronald Reagan, whose movie-actor delivery and warm wit earned him the name...

a. Ronald Reagan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. President Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911 – 2004) – Genealogy – Geni

c. with over 150 million profiles of ancestors and living …


480- HENRIETTA LEAVITT SWANN: 1912AD… Henrietta Leavitt Swann’s variable-star cosmic “ruler.”

a 1912: Henrietta Leavitt Discovers the Distance Key | Everyday

b. A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: Henrietta Leavitt – PBS

c.A Science Odyssey: Then+Now: Physics and Astronomy – PBS

481- RICHARD NIXON: 1913-1994AD…President Nixon had been secretly recording ..led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon

a. Richard Nixon Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b.Richard Nixon – Wikipedia

c. Richard Milhous Nixon (1913 – 1994) – Find A Grave Memorial

482- ROSA PARKS: 1913-2005AD…was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called ” the …

a. Rosa Parks – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Parks, Rosa (1913-2005) – King Encyclopedia

c.Parks, Rosa (1913-2005) | The Black Past: Remembered and

483- GERALD FORD: 1913-2006AD… was the President of the United States from 1974 to 1977. …

a.Gerald Ford – Wikipedia

b. Gerald Ford – Wikipedia, den frie encyklopædi

c. Gerald Ford – Wikipedia

484- WORLD WAR ONE 1914…WWI may have been the war to end all wars, but it was also the beginning of many military … By the time World War I ended in the defeat…

a.World War I – History Channel

b. World War One – The British Library

c. World War I – Battles, Facts, Videos & Pictures –

485- NIELS BOHR: 1913AD… Niels Bohr’s quantum theory…When jumping from one orbit to another with lower energy, a light quantum is emitted. Bohr’s theory could explain… w

a. Niels Bohr – Facts – Nobel

b. Bohr model – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Niels Bohr: Biography & Atomic Theory – LiveScience

486- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1941AD…WORLD WAR II…World War II In HD Colour is a 13-episode television documentary series … The United States


a.SCENARIO: “World War II – 1941 AD” on the complete world map for

b.WWII – The Battle For Russia 1941 AD – Part 2 of 12 – In HD – YouTube

c.SCENARIO: “World War II – 1941 AD” for C3C on the complete world

487- JOHN F. KENNEDY: 1917-1963AD…was the 35th President of the United States. This biography … Born on. 29 May 1917 AD. Birthday … 22 November 1963 AD.

a. John F. Kennedy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Sr. (1917 – 1963) – Genealogy – Geni

c. John F. Kennedy – Biographical Dictionary –

488- INDIRA GANDHI: 1917-1984AD…One of the strongest political leaders of Independent India, Indira Gandhi was the first woman to hold the office …

a.Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) – The 25 Most Powerful Women of – Time

b. Indira Gandhi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Manas: History and Politics, Indira Gandhi

489- NELSON MANDELA: 1918-2013AD…whose activism made him a central figure in ending apartheid in South Africa, went from a prisoner to president in his lifetime...

a.Nelson Mandela 1918-2013 – The Atlantic

b. Nelson Mandela Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. Nelson Mandela 1918-2013 – The Atlantic

490- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1950AD …KOREAN WAR… began as a civil war between North and South Korea, but the conflict soon became international when…u

a.Korean War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Korean War – Facts & Summary –

c.Douglas MacArthur – Facts &

491- EVA PERON: 1919-1952AD…was the second wife of Argentine President Juan Perón (1895–1974) and served as the First Lady of …

a. Eva Perón – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Eva “EvitaPerón: 1919–1952: Political Leader Biography – Worked

c. Evita Peron – Dittatori e regimi

492- POPE JOHN PAUL II: 1920-2005AD…The most traveled pope in history. During his papacy he has issued many letters …

a. Pope John Paul II – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.St. John Paul the Great icon by Theophilia on DeviantArt

c. Catholic Authorities Teach Theosis | New God Argument

493- EDWIN HUBBLE ..Edwin Powell Hubble (1889 – 1953) was an American astronomer who played a crucial in establishing the field …announces that Andromeda is a galaxy. …

a.Edwin Hubble – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Edwin Powell Hubble – The man who discovered the cosmos | ESA

c.Edwin Hubble – Astronomer, Scientist –

494- GEORGE H. W. BUSH: 1924AD-current… President of the United States…

a. George H. W. Bush – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. George H.W. Bush tweets health update – –

c. BANNED INTERVIEW with George Bush Jr. US PresidentYouTube

495- JIMMY CARTER: 1924AD-current… In a remarkable press conference marked by grace and devoid of self-pity, former President Jimmy Carter said Thursday that four spots of …

a. Jimmy Carter’s Doing Well on Cancer Treatment – NBC News

b.Jimmy Carter cancer: Melanoma on the brain –

c. Jimmy Carter, American Superhero – The Daily Beast

496- MALCOLM X: 1925-1965AD… most visible proponent of Black Nationalism, Malcolm X’s challenge to the multiracial, nonviolent approach of Martin Luther King, Jr., helped set …

a. Malcolm X (1925-1965) – King Encyclopedia

b.Malcolm X (1925-1965) | The Black Past: Remembered and

c. Malcolm X Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

497- MARGARET THATCHER: 1925-2013AD…The first female prime minister of Britain, Margaret Thatcher was a controversial …

a.Margaret Thatcher – British History –

b.Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013) – Margaret Thatcher Foundation

c.Margaret Thatcher Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

498- HEISENBERG SCHRODINGER: 1925AD Heisenberg and Schrodinger found quantum mechanics. Heisenberg uncertainty principle; Statistical interpretation of…

a. Heisenberg / Uncertainty Principle – American Institute of Physics

b. Heisenberg and Schrödinger get pulled over for speeding. : Jokes

c. Erwin Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg devise a quantum

499- MARTIN LUTHER KING: 1929-1968AD…was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil …

a. Martin Luther King, Jr. – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Major King Events Chronology: 1929-1968 | The Martin Luther King

c. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) | New Georgia Encyclopedia

500- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1929AD-1939AD …GREAT DEPRESSION…The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took ……

a. The Great Depression – Facts & Summary –

b.Great Depression – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

cThe Great Depression . Surviving the Dust Bowl . WGBH American

501- BORIS YELTSIN: 1931-2007AD…The first president of post-Soviet Russia, Boris Yeltsin, died on April 23 in a Moscow hospital of heart failure at the age of 76. He will go down in …

a Boris Yeltsin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Boris Yeltsin | president of Russia |

c Boris Yeltsin Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline.

502- MIKHAIL GORBACHEV: 1931AD-current…a Nobel Peace Prize winner, is one of the notable leaders of former Soviet Union…

a .Mikhail Gorbachev – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Mikhail Gorbachev Fast Facts –

c.Mikhail Gorbachev Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

503- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1931AD… ELECTRON MICROSCOPE IS INVENTED…First virus “seen” using the electron microscope…

a.Microscopes Projection – Powerful 5000x Zoom Microscopes

b. Electron Microscopes –

c. Scan Electron Microscope –

504- KARL JANSKY: 1935AD .. was an American physicist and radio engineer who in August 1931 first discovered radio waves ….

a Karl Jansky – National Radio Astronomy Observatory

b. Karl Guthe Jansky – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Karl Jansky Father of Radio Astronomy | Astronotes

505- ALAN TURING: 1936AD…was a British pioneering computer scientist, mathematician, logician, crypt analyst and … Alan Turing publishes his principle …

a. Alan Turing – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – iWonder – Alan Turing: Creator of modern computing

c. A History of Computers

506- HARRY S.TRUMAN…1884-1972…was the 33rd President of the United States … Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948 and the creation of NATO in 1949. …..

a. Truman: HST Biography – Harry S. Truman Library and Museum

b. Harry S. Truman |

c. Harry S. Truman – U.S. President –

507-UNITED NATIONS…The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945. It is currently made up of 193 Member States. The mission and work of the …

a. About the UN | United Nations

b. UN Careers

c. United Nations Foundation

508- WARREN WEAVER: 1938AD …was an American scientist, mathematician, and science administrator … coins the term molecular biology…

a.Warren Weaver – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. WARREN WEAVER – National Academy of Sciences

c. Computer Pioneers – Warren Weaver – History Committee archive

509- LEE HARVEY OSWALD: 1939-1963AD…was an American sniper who assassinated President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963...

a. Lee Harvey Oswald – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Lee Harvey Oswald – Spartacus Educational

c.Lee Harvey Oswald Facts, information, pictures |

510- EVENTS/IDEA- VIETNAM WAR…also known as the Second Indochina War, and also known in Vietnam as Resistance War Against …

a. Vietnam War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Role of the United States in the Vietnam War – Wikipedia, the free

c.Vietnam War – A Day in Vietnam | 1967 | American Cold YouTube

511- EVENTS/IDEAS: NATO.. is an Alliance that consists of 28 independent member… countries…

a. NATO – Member countries

b.What is NATO?

c. NATO – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

512- EVENT: COLD WAR…. 1945-1989… was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc..

a. Cold War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Cold War – Causes, Events, Pictures & Videos –

c.Cold War – History Channel ..

513-RONALD REAGAN..12911-2004…President Jimmy Carter congratulates Ronald Reagan, the new president ……

a. President Ronald Reagan Timeline

b. Presidency of Ronald Reagan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. The Best of Ronald ReaganYouTube

514- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1945AD…FIRST ATOMIC BOMB… Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on Aug 06, 1945…

a.Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima – Aug 06, 1945 –

b.Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki – World War II –

c.Atomic Bomb | HISTORY

515- GEORGE H. W. BUSH: 1924AD-current…41st President of the United States (1989–1993), 43rd Vice President of the United States (1981–1989); Director of the CIA …

a. George H. W. BushWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Electoral history of George H. W. BushWikipedia, the free

c. The Hidden Hard-line Side of George H.W. Bush – Politico

516- BILL CLINTON: 1946AD-current… is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United …

a.Bill Clinton – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Bill Clinton: Life After the Presidency—Miller Center

c.Bill Clinton: Biography, College, Education, Economy YouTube

517- EVENTS/IDEAS: BELL LABS…1947AD… The Bell Labs work on the transistor emerged from war-time efforts to produce extremely pure germanium …

a. An Outline of the History of the Transistor – PBS

b. Bell System Memorial- Bell Labs (Who Really Invented The

c. World’s First Transistor Invented by Bell Telephone Laboratories

518- GEORGE GAMOW: 1947-49AD… and colleagues propose the Big Bang Theory….

a.George Gamow, Gifted Physicist – YouTube

b.George GamowWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Edward Teller – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

519- JAMES M. CARROLL..1930-CURRENT..James M. Carroll. A discovery of the unifying infinitesimal particle and its relationship to the organization and behavior of all matter. Born Out Of The Sun 1998…

a. Born out of the sun 2014

b. Born out of the sun 2014

c. Born out of the sun 2014

520- CLAUDE SHANNON: 1948AD … about the branch of computer science and mathematics…The field is broadly defined and includes foundations in computer…

a. Information theory – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Theoretical computer science – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Claude Shannon: Reluctant Father of the Digital Age | MIT

521- WATSON AND CRICK: 1953AD …Watson and Crick announce the double-helix structure of DNA…

a.Watson and Crick discover chemical structure of DNA – Feb 28, 1953

b.Watson and Crick describe structure of DNA – PBS

c. Jacob’s Stick (Genesis 30: 37-41) – Teachinghearts

522- STEVE JOBS: 1955-2011AD…was an American information technology entrepreneur and inventor…

a. Steve JobsWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Steve Jobs Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c.Steve Jobs‘ most inspiring Speech !! – YouTube

523- TIM BURNERS-LEE: 1955AD-current… introduces the World Wide Web…In March 1989, Tim BernersLee submitted a proposal for an information…

a. Tim BernersLee – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Tim BernersLee – World Wide Web @ 25 – YouTube

c. How the World Wide Web just happened – Tim Berners-Lee – YouTube

524- BILL GATES: 1955AD-current…an American business magnate, philanthropist, investor, and computer programmer. In 1975, Gates and …

a.Bill Gates – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Bill Gates – Business Leader, Entrepreneur, Philanthropist

c.Life Story of Bill Gates – Documentary – YouTube

525- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1956AD…DARTMOUTH CONFERENCE… on artificial intelligence…propose that a 2 month, 10 man study of artificial intelligence

a. Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence (AI) Conference – Internet

b. The Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference: The next 50 years

c.Dartmouth Conferences – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

526- EVENTS/IDEAS: SPUTNIK I 1957AD…orbits the Earth…Sputnik launched on Oct 04, 1957. … its elliptical orbit had an apogee of 584 miles and a perigee (nearest point) …

a. Sputnik 1 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Sputnik – NASA’s History Office

c. Sputnik launched – Oct 04, 1957 –

527- JACK KIRBY AND ROBERT NOYCE: 1958AD… Jack Kirby of Texas Instruments patented the principle of integration …invent the integrated circuit….

a. Integrated Circuit – History of Computers

b. Robert Noyce – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. History of Computing – Computer Science & Engineering

528- JAMES L. CLAYTON…1934-CURRENT…SUCCESS STORY…Tennessee cotton picker to Wall Street…Mobile Home King, banker, country music singer, lawyer, engineer, pilot,TV host, philanthropist…

a. Trailer King – Forbes

b.Clayton Bank and Trust | Board of Directors

c.Mid Country Financial | James L Clayton

d.Clayton Homes Inc Facts, information, pictures |

e. Ocwen and the Golden Rule Lessons that Paid off for Clayton Homes

529- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A REPUBLIC is a sovereign state or country which is organized with a form of government in which power resides in elected individuals …

a.Republic vs. Democracy –

b.What is Democracy? – YouTube

c An Important Distinction: Democracy versus Republic –

530- PENZIAS AND WILSON: 1963AD… detect microwave background radiation…Bell Labs radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were using…

a. rno Penzias and Robert Wilson – Bell Labs, Holmdel, NJ

b.Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation – PBS

c Discovery of Cosmic Background Radiation – HyperPhysics.

531- EDWARD LORENZ: 1963AD…was an American mathematician, meteorologist, and a pioneer of chaos theory…

a.Edward Norton Lorenz – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Edward Norton Lorenz – Publications – MIT

c.Edward Lorenz, father of chaos theory and butterfly effect, dies at 90

532- MURRAY GELL-MANN AND GEORGE ZWEIG: 1964AD… found quantum chromodynamics…George Zweig giving a speech at Department of Physics… ..

a. Modern Particle Theory timeline – CERN

b George Zweig – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Fifty years of quarks | CERN

533- NEIL ARMSTRONG: 1969AD… walks on the Moon…“Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon. July 1969 AD. We came in peace for all mankind.” …

a. Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the – BrainyQuote

b.Neil Armstrong photographed just minutes after becoming the first

c.Armstrong walks on moon – Jul 20, 1969 –

534- EVENTS/IDEAS: ARPANet 1971AD … first test of, leading to the Internet in the 1990s. Electro-weak unification wins acceptance…

a. History of Computing – Computer Science & Engineering

b. Introduction to Computer Science Emergence of Modern Computer

c.History of computers – Modern – SlideShare

535- EVENTS/IDEAS: RECOMBINANT DNA:1972AD … research begins… Recombinant DNA technology, joining together of DNA molecules from two different species…

a. Recombinant DNA – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. recombinant DNA technology | genetics |

c.An Introduction to Recombinant DNA

536- EVENTS/IDEAS: PDP-8. 1973AD… Although some people consider the CDC 160 the first minicomputer, the PDP8 was the definitive minicomputer…

a. Online PDP8 Home Page

b.PDP8 Document Search Results – Online PDP8

c. Doug Jones’s DEC PDP8 FAQs – University of Iowa

537- ALAN GUTH: 1980AD… a theoretical physicist and cosmologist, known mainly for his work on elementary particle theory and how particle theory is applicable to…

a.Alan Guth – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Alan Guth – Important Scientists – The Physics of the Universe

c.Alan Guth: Waiting for the Big Bang | Innovators

538- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1981 AD IBM PC… is introduced…personal computers were available as early as the mid-1970s, first as … IBM’s own Personal Computer …(

a. IBM Archives: The birth of the IBM PC

b.Timeline of Computer History: 1981 | Computer History Museum

c. Timeline of Computer History: 1981 | Computer History Museum

539- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1984 AD…STRING THEORY… becomes “respectable” in physics…String theory emerged in the late 1960s as a candidate for..

a. History of string theory – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The First Revolution | Why String Theory

c. The Early Years of String Theory – Aspen Center for Physics


a. The Collapse of the Soviet Union1989–1992 – Milestones – Office

b. Dissolution of the Soviet Union – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Fall of the Soviet Union – Cold War –

541- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1990 AD…HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE… launched into orbit…Hubble Space Telescope’s launch in 1990 sped humanity to one of its greatest…

a. Hubble Site – The TelescopeHubble Essentials

b.About the Hubble Space Telescope | NASA

c. 10 Fascinating Facts About the Hubble Space Telescope – History in

542- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1995 AD…SIXTH QUARK… called “top,” discovered…There are six types of quarks, known as flavors: up, down, strange, charm, top, and bottom. …

a. Top quark – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The sixth quark: Top marks – Nature

c. top quark | physics |

543- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1998 AD… DARK ENERGY PROPOSED…Dark energy was discovered in 1998 with this method by two international teams that included…

a. Dark energy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. dark energy | astronomy |

c. A ‘Speedy’ Discovery – Dark Energy – HETDEX

544- EVENTS/IDEAS: 2000 AD…HUMAN GENOME DECODED… initial rough draft of the human genome was available in June 2000 and by February …

a. Human Genome Sequencing – 3730xl, Ion Torrent, Illumina

b. Human Genome Project – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome : Article : Nature

545- EVENT… FIRST GULF WAR BUSH I…1990-1991…The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War…,

a. Gulf WarWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Persian Gulf War | 1990-1991 |

c. Highway of Death – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

546- AL-QAEDA..SEPTEMBER 11,2001…After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, alQaeda (or AL-Qa’ida, pronounced AL-KYE-da) surpassed the IRA, Hamas…

a. AlQaeda – Infoplease

b.AlQaida / AlQaeda (The Base) –

c. Who Is Bin Laden? – Al Qaeda | Hunting Bin Laden | FRONTLINE

547- .AFGHANISTAN. WAR USA BUSH II…Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country’s strategic location along the Silk Road

a. Afghanistan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. President Bush announces military action in Afghanistan – Oct 07

c. War in Afghanistan (2001–14) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

548- IRAQ WAR BUSH II.. 2003-2011…Bush was allegedly floating the idea of painting a U‑2 spy plane in UN colors and letting it fly low ….

a. Iraq War | 2003-2011 |

b. Iraq War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. 2003 invasion of Iraq – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

549- EVENT..WHO IS ISIS?…The Islamic State, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq follows a distinctive variety of Islam whose beliefs about the path to the Day of …

a. ISIS: Everything you need to know about the group –

b.What ISIS Really Wants – The Atlantic

c.What is ‘Islamic State’? – BBC News –

d. Everything you need to know about ISIS | MSNBC

550- BARACK OBAMA: 1961AD-current…Barack Obama is the 44th and current President of the United States. This biography of Barack Obama provides detailed information… …

a. Barack Obama Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. President Barack Obama |

c. Is the State of Hawaii Covering Up Birth Registration Fraud in the ..


a.History of AfricaYouTube

b.History of AfricaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Economic history of AfricaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. Outline of AfricaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

e. Great achievements in science and technology in ancient Africa

f. AfricansContribution to Science: A Culture of Excellence

g. African Science in School Curriculum – African Studies Center

h. List of African scientists, inventors, and scholars – Wikipedia, the free

i. Some) of Africa’s Scientific Discoveries & Contributions | Believing

j. Africa’s contribution to science and technology | ¡Ya Basta! Media

k.African-American Contributions to Mathematics and Science

l .African Americans contribute much to the field of Science | African

m.List of African scientists, inventors, and scholars – Wikipedia, the free

n. Greatest Africans of All Times – Emeagwali

o. Famous Black Scientists – Biography.cop.

p.15 Famous Black Scientists in History – Famous Scientists

q. 10 Black Scientists You Should Know | HowStuffWorks

r. South African heroes of science – SA scientists and inventors

s. The Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences.

u. Top 10 African Music You Can’t Stop Singing – Answers Africa

v. Afrobeats: The new sound of West Africa that’s going global – CNN

w. Top 10 Best Music Producer In Nigeria – GY

x.African American Music Evolution Timeline – YouTube

y.730 The Movie – YouTube

z.15-Yr-Old Kelvin Doe Wows M.I.T. – YouTube

552- SPECIAL TOPIC…2016…HOW DOES AN EMAIL SEVER WORK?…email server is a computer that serves as an electronic post office for email. ..

a. How your email server worksYouTube

b.How email worksYouTubec. Message transfer agent – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


a.What Is Humanism – American Humanist Association

b.Exploring the Idea of Humanism – American Humanist Association

c.Humanism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d.Humanism Intro Part 1 – ‘Humanism‘ Richard Dawkins YouTube


a.What is Logic? – Definition & Examples – Video & Lesson Transcript

b.Logic – By Branch / Doctrine – The Basics of Philosophy

c.What is logic and why do philosophers study it?

555- HOW TO REFORM THE STOCK MARKET…Make public traded corporations give back to the stock holders 75% of the profit each quarter…





a.What is Critical Thinking? – Definition, Skills & Meaning – Video

b.What is Critical Thinking – Critical Reading

c.Critical thinking – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. How to Write an A+ Research Paper – A Research Guide for Students



The University of Bologna was founded in 1088AD in Italy. It was the first university and is the oldest in the world. Students sat in a desk, listened to professors, took notes and stayed up all night memorizing facts that in the digital age you can Google in a second.